Write a detailed note on indus valley civilization. Indus Valley Civilization, Its Evolution & Culture: UPSC Notes 2022-10-17
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The Indus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harappan Civilization, was a Bronze Age civilization that flourished in the Indus Valley region of modern-day Pakistan and northwest India. The civilization is known for its well-planned cities, advanced architecture, and sophisticated systems of governance, trade, and social organization.
The Indus Valley Civilization is thought to have developed around 2500 BCE, and it reached its peak of prosperity around 2000 BCE. The civilization was characterized by its urban centers, which were home to large populations of people who lived in well-planned and orderly cities. These cities were connected by a network of roads and waterways, and they were surrounded by fields and farms that provided the necessary food and resources for the population.
One of the most distinctive features of the Indus Valley Civilization was its advanced system of governance. The civilization was divided into several city-states, each of which was ruled by a powerful ruler or a council of elders. These rulers were responsible for maintaining order and enforcing laws within their city-states, and they also oversaw the collection of taxes and the distribution of resources.
The Indus Valley Civilization was also known for its sophisticated system of trade and commerce. The civilization was located at the crossroads of several major trade routes, and as a result, it was able to access a wide range of goods and resources from other parts of the world. The Indus Valley Civilization was also a major producer of goods, including textiles, jewelry, and ceramics, which were traded with other civilizations in the region.
One of the most remarkable aspects of the Indus Valley Civilization was its advanced system of social organization. The civilization was divided into several social classes, including rulers, priests, merchants, and farmers, and each class had its own distinct roles and responsibilities. The Indus Valley Civilization was also home to a number of religious and cultural institutions, including temples, shrines, and universities, which played a central role in the lives of the people.
Despite the many achievements of the Indus Valley Civilization, it ultimately declined and was eventually replaced by other civilizations in the region. The reasons for the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization are not fully understood, but it is thought that a combination of factors, including changes in the climate, internal conflicts, and invasions by outside powers, may have contributed to its downfall.
Today, the legacy of the Indus Valley Civilization lives on through the many artifacts and ruins that have been discovered in the region. These artifacts, including seals, pottery, and sculptures, provide valuable insights into the culture, society, and daily life of the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, and they continue to fascinate historians and scholars around the world.
Indus Valley Civilisation (Useful Notes)
Typically, the city is divided into two sections. We regard either interpretation as still unproven, but favour the latter. Around 1900 BC, signs began to emerge of mounting problems. The shape of the plough is exactly like those used even now in South Asian villages. Marshall speculated, like Cunningham, that the civilization was likely only perhaps 1,000 years old. Such claims may prove to be valid, but modern nationalist arguments complicate the task of South Asian archaeologists who must deal with the poor condition of Harappan sites.
This caused loss of very valuable information regarding. ASPECTS OF INDUS CULTURE Harappan had a conservative outlook and their culture remained almost unchanged for centuries. Occupations practiced were spinning, weaving, boat making, goldsmiths, making pottery and seal making. The results revealed that the woman was a genetic ancestor of most modern Indians. Hence, our knowledge of Harappan civilization is solely based on archaeological evidence alone. If the Ghaggar-Hakra river system dried up when the Indus civilization was at its height, the consequences would have been devastating. And into the india of western and northwestern.
Indus Valley Civilization (Harappa Civilization): A Detailed Summary
Pottery Potteryforms and designs were also remarkably similar throughout the vast area encompassed by the Indus Valley a Civilization Few large works of art or pieces of statuary have been discovered from Mohenjodaro and Harappa. In the west, it expands on the Arabian Sea coast in Baluchistan, Pakistan, up to the Iranian border. Their seals depict animals in a way that seems to suggest veneration, perhaps presaging Hindu convictions regarding the sacredness of cattle. Mohenjodaro and some other Indus cities consist of two sectors, a western Citadel and an eastern Lower City. Indus people were the first who produces cotton, which Greeks termed as Sindom derived from Sindh.
The Indus-Mesopotamia relationship reconsidered. New York: Cambridge University Press. Distinctive world views and philosophies characterise the people of distinct regions. It was wetter, too. It also appears that the settlements in the central and southern India flourished after he decline of Harappa and Mohenjodaro The drying up of the ancient Sarasvati or Ghaggar-Hakra River may also have adversely affected the civilization.
The sub-continent is Indian in essence because of its geographic isolation. The demise of the Indus Valley Civilization According to World History Encyclopedia, between 1900 B. These civilizations' were Makkan and Meluha. Also, Mohenjodaro was in a dilapidated condition. At the height of the Indus valley civilisation the subcontinent may have contained 4-6million people.
The first announcement of the discovery of the Indus Valley Civilization was made in the Sept. It covered more than 12, 99,600 km2, from the borders of Baluchistan to the deserts of Rajasthan, from the Himalayan foot hills to the southern tip of Gujarat. Check the The Culture During Indus Valley Civilisation The civilization of the Indus valley was a cultural and political entity which flourished in the region north of the Indian subcontinent between c. Dead Bodies were buried or cremated in North-South Orientation. But, unlike Cunningham, he noted the many similarities between the archaeological sites of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, and recognized that the two cities were representative of a single culture, which he termed the Indus Valley Civilization. He is surrounded by wild animals. Journal of Archaeological Science.
NCERT Notes: Art Of Indus Valley Civilisation [Art & Culture Notes For UPSC]
Stay updated with the Economy and Trade System in Indus Valley Civilisation The economy of Indus valley civilization is a trading system, for all growth of society they do trading like for building of technologies in their cities. These statuettes remain controversial, due to their advanced style in representing the human body. Some of the other expected reasons behind the decline of this civilization are climate change, the drying up of the Sarasvati River, an alteration in the path of the monsoon which watered crops, overpopulation of the cities, a decline in trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. All these reasons are said to have caused the decline of the civilization. Sir John Marshall, then Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India, used the term 'Indus civilization' for the culture discovered at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, a term doubly apt because of the geographical context implied in the name 'Indus' and the presence of cities implied in the word 'civilization'.
Indus Valley Civilization, Its Evolution & Culture: UPSC Notes
The cities that were large of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa civilization were very likely to contain between 30,000 and 60,000 individuals and the civilization itself during its fluorescence may have contained between one and five million individuals. Despite regional differentiations and constant contact with outsiders, the Indus civilisation was essentially Indian in character. The oldest recorded, history ok the Indian subcontinent is traced in he Vedas. With forest and grass cover removed, there were floods and droughts. With the movement to settled agriculture, and the emergence of villages, towns and cities, there was probably a modest rise in the average death rate and a slightly greater rise in the birth rate.
Yet archaeologists have demonstrated that this culture did, in fact, arise from its pre-Harappan predecessor. By 4000 BC, a distinctive, regional culture, called pre-Harappan, had emerged in this area. Jarrige notes that the people of The cattle that are often portrayed on Indus seals are humped Bos primigenius namadicus , which are similar to Bos primigenius taurus , and are believed to have been independently domesticated on the Indian subcontinent, probably in the Research by J. He also argued that the origins of the city were likely due to contact with people from the Near East, possibly the inhabitants of Mesopotamia. The synthesis is the result of millennia of conflict and interaction of the various groups of people who migrated into this country. Mughal suggested calling the early stage at Kot Diji and at other sites the Early Harappan Culture.
Then, perhaps linked to events in Mesopotamia, about 8,500years ago agriculture emerged in Baluchistan. This figure has been variously identified. The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture. Perhaps we will never know. It was probably worn around the neck. Cotton was also an important crop for the civilization's clothing and textiles. Judging from the abundant figurines depicting female fertility that they left behind, Indus civilization people — like modern Hindus — may have held a special place in their worship for a mother goddess and the life-affirming principles she represents see shakti and Kali.