Trans saharan trade network. 2.4 TRANS SAHARAN TRADE NETWORKS OF EXCHANGE — Freemanpedia 2022-10-15
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The trans-Saharan trade network was a complex and extensive network of trade routes that connected the Mediterranean coast of Africa to the western and central regions of the continent. This network played a vital role in the economic and cultural exchange between Africa and the rest of the world for more than a millennium.
The trans-Saharan trade network was established in the eighth century CE and reached its peak of prosperity in the 14th and 15th centuries. It was primarily used for the trade of luxury goods such as gold, salt, and slaves, as well as more practical items such as textiles, metal goods, and agricultural products.
The main route of the trans-Saharan trade network ran from the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, through the Sahara desert, and into the savannahs and forests of West Africa. Along this route, a series of oases and trading centers were established, providing rest and shelter for travelers and a place for merchants to exchange goods.
One of the most important centers of the trans-Saharan trade network was the city of Timbuktu, located in modern-day Mali. Timbuktu was a major hub for the trade of gold, salt, and other goods, and it became a center of learning and scholarship. The city was home to a number of famous universities and libraries, and it attracted scholars and intellectuals from all over the Muslim world.
The trans-Saharan trade network was not only a source of economic exchange, but it also played a significant role in the cultural exchange between Africa and the rest of the world. The network facilitated the spread of Islam throughout West Africa and the exchange of ideas and knowledge between African and European cultures.
The trans-Saharan trade network began to decline in the 16th century, due in part to the rise of the Atlantic slave trade and the increasing competition from European traders. The network was eventually replaced by the Atlantic trade routes, which became the dominant trade route for goods between Africa and the rest of the world.
Despite its decline, the trans-Saharan trade network left a lasting impact on Africa and the rest of the world. It played a crucial role in the economic and cultural development of the continent and helped to establish Africa as a major player in the global economy.
Between 1376 and 1400, the rebellious Bulala, who opposed the imposition of strict Islamic rule under the Sefuwa, managed to assassinate five of the six Sefuwa kings. Thus, a vital factor in the emergence of the social fabric of West Africa was the Sahara desert. Scarcity of water and food during the journey across the desert. Arabic was not only an elite language of learning, but also became a language used by many to pay homage to their departed family members. By 1500s, books created and sold in Timbuktu brought prices higher than most other goods.
With sugar plantations in Cape Verde and the Madeira Islands, the Portuguese in the 1340s were already transporting slaves to offer cheap labor in the plantations Lovejoy, 2019. THIS is the Trans-Atlantic Trade Route. The Sefuwa also strengthened their grip on the people of Bornu as they entrenched their rule, prompting a series of internal revolts by the non-Muslim peasant population that they ruthlessly suppressed. Origins and Timeframe of Early Trade The connections of West Africa with the Mediterranean world is a very old one, which long predates the rise of Islam in the late 6 th century CE. This is shown by the Carthaginian general, Hannibal. New trade hubs sprang up on both sides of the desert. The goods being traded along this route are simple: Salt, Gold, Slaves.
Who dominated the trans saharan trade route? Explained by FAQ Blog
The slaves worked in the plantations cheaply compared to their counterparts, European slaves. For example, the Malians were supplanted a few centuries after their rise by the Songhai dynasty, who assumed control of the gold trade flowing northward. These efforts gave the Portuguese an opportunity to develop a clearer sense of the scope of trans-Saharan trade, including interactions with the Wolof, who sold enslaved people along the interior trade routes in West Africa. What problems did the Trans-Saharan traders face? From about 700 B. In West Africa, the most important changes came in Ghāna. Archaeological evidence suggests that inhabitants of ancient Egypt, one of the places where civilization first arose, used obsidian imported from Senegal in West Africa.
This became significant as the trans-Saharan gold trade became ever more important from the 11 th century onwards. These animals revolutionized trans-Saharan trade networks. Trade in the Ancient Sahara and Beyond. Gold's sheen and durability has caused it to have many uses in human history, from decoration to coinage. By the 15 th century, when the Atlantic trade would begin, the trans-Saharan trade had been flourishing for at least 5 centuries, and had already shaped the rise, fall, and consolidation of many West African states and societies.
In the 12th century, new fields opened up west and south of the Soninke's traditional fields, and traders began to bypass the Soninke to trade with other tribes. Dahomey went on to become one of the major exporters of enslaved captives, which the state traded in exchange for firearms. What is the trans-Saharan trade? Over the course of the next century and a half, the mais kings of Kanem established their control over the region. The frequency of such presences of West Africans in the wider Islamic world is shown not only through the spread of Arabic, and the number of documented journeys made, but also by oral accounts. It was founded in the 7 th century, and was located in present day North-East Senegal in the valley of the Senegal River. Do camel caravans still cross the desert today? These Arabs built fabulous mosques and courts for Mansa Musa. Which saddle on had the greatest impact on trade and why? Therefore the western Africa economy did suffer long-term negative impacts Da Silva, 2017.
2.4 TRANS SAHARAN TRADE NETWORKS OF EXCHANGE — Freemanpedia
UNESCO General History of Africa. The influence of the trans-Saharan gold trade on European societies can be seen for instance in the derivation of the Spanish word for gold coin in the 15 th century, maravedí, from the Almoravid murabitūn dinar. Mali and Mansa Musa Perhaps the most famous and influential kingdom linked to the trans-Saharan trade was that of Mali. Ancient Egyptians traded with their southern neighbors the Nubians. In 1488, Portuguese sailors were the first to travel around the Cape of Good Hope, proving a sea route to the east coast of Africa and the lucrative Indian Ocean trade was possible.
The Portuguese monarchy also hired explorers such as Alvise Cadamosto, a Venetian slaver sent to scout the region of Senegambia. Once captured, those seized by the Segou military faced two possible fates: they could be sold to desert nomads as part of the trans-Saharan slave trade, or they could be sold to caravan merchants who dealt with European slave traders on the Slave Coast. With the Portuguese discovery of sea routes to West Africa in the mid 16th century, the overland trans-Saharan trade routes became significantly less important. Ghana was located half way between the sources of the two Trans-Saharan trade items: salt from the desert up north and gold from Bambuk to the East. This was also very apparent in Timbuktu. They did not bother to kill Sundiata became the young prince was crippled and was not considered a threat.
According to the United Nations, it consists of all African countries and territories that are fully or partially south of the Sahara. Trans-Saharan trade routes red dotted lines were a key factor in the development of the Kanem-Bornu Empire, which resulted from the expansion of the Kanem Empire south into Bornu along the western shore of Lake Chad. By the 7th century C. One was on the Upper Senegal river, especially the tributary of the Falémé. There was destruction of property as communities raided each other for trade items; It contributed to the decline of the Trans-Saharan trade as many people found it more profitable; There was a decline in agricultural production as the able bodied people were taken away into slavery. The effects of trans-Saharan trade were nonetheless extensive. The Wangara diaspora of traders gradually became more and more important in creating a common culture across different parts of West Africa.
The dumbstruck Arab visitor also described in glowing terms how well dressed in gold the Ghana king was, how he was able to raise an army of 200,000 men and how he allowed both Islam and animism to be practised in Kumbi Saleh. With us they do no more work than other members of the community, even their master. He left he Capital of Mali and traversed the Sahara through Walata in present day Mauretania, then Libya before entering Cairo. Retrieved January 21, 2009. Ancient Egyptian Stone Vessels.
From providing porterage services to supplying food and other necessities that made the trade possible, local businesses also profited from the sale of enslaved people. The challenge was quite severe for poorer European states, such as Portugal. The accession of Humai I to the throne of Kanem in 1087 marked the beginning of the Muslim Sefuwa dynasty. But the growth of powerful Islamic kingdoms in Morocco, and of centres of learning based in Cairo, Tripoli, and the Middle East, saw the rise of the caravan trade. The Trans-Saharan Trade During the Roman Period By the beginning of the Common Era, Romans exercised rule over the entire North African coast. With an increased demand for slaves from the European nations, they constructed permanent trading posts and forts and the slave and gold coasts.