Stephen and matilda the civil war of 1139 53. Matilda’s Opportunity 2022-10-17
Stephen and matilda the civil war of 1139 53 Rating:
Stephen and Matilda were two key figures in the civil war that took place in England from 1139 to 1153, known as the Anarchy. This conflict was characterized by a struggle for the English throne between Stephen, who had seized the crown in 1135 upon the death of his uncle, King Henry I, and Matilda, the daughter of Henry I and the rightful heir to the throne according to the rules of primogeniture.
The conflict between Stephen and Matilda began almost immediately after Henry I's death. Matilda, who was living in Anjou, France at the time, was supported by her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester, and her uncle, King David I of Scotland, while Stephen was supported by a number of influential English barons.
Stephen's hold on the throne was tenuous at best, as many of the English nobles were unhappy with his rule and believed that Matilda had a stronger claim to the throne. As a result, the country was plunged into a state of civil war, with each side fighting for control of key castles and cities.
The war was marked by a series of military campaigns and battles, with both Stephen and Matilda gaining and losing ground at various points. One of the key turning points in the conflict came in 1141, when Matilda's forces were defeated at the Battle of Lincoln, leading to her capture and imprisonment.
Despite this setback, Matilda's supporters continued to fight on, and in 1153, Stephen was finally forced to agree to the Treaty of Winchester, which recognized Matilda's son, Henry, as the rightful heir to the throne. Stephen retained the crown for the remainder of his life, but upon his death in 1154, Henry was crowned King Henry II, bringing an end to the Anarchy and the civil war between Stephen and Matilda.
Overall, the civil war between Stephen and Matilda had a significant impact on the course of English history, as it led to a period of political instability and weakened the power of the monarchy. It also paved the way for the rise of the Plantagenet dynasty, which would go on to rule England for over 300 years.
The Londoners, like all those facing tax demands, pleaded poverty on account of the costs of the war, and because they had been forced to take expensive measures to combat the threat of the current famine. The Anarchy of King Stephen's Reign. The helmet might still be in the conical shape of the familiar Norman style, but helmets covering more of the head and face were developing, and may have encouraged the need for more clothing to distinguish the knight from his fellows. The bishop gave her possession of the royal treasury and the keys to the royal castle. Such things in the end had to be dealt with on individual merits, not by broad policy. William also speaks of tenants and peasants being tortured or ransomed in order to get their wealth.
The Among Henry's first measures was to expel the remaining foreign mercenaries and continue the process of demolishing the unauthorised castles. The Empress Matilda was never to be truly Queen of England. There had been a great deal of destruction, but the castle had held out. He also declared that from now on he would do justice in all parts of the realm, royalist and Angevin. John of Worcester, ed. Henry of Huntingdon specifically says that there was a beginning of the peace negotiation, but it was decided to postpone its completion to another time. Churchmen approached both leaders, seeking a halt to the conflict.
Although not yet crowned, she had won the obedience of the church so that coronation seemed but a formality; she had taken over the treasury at Winchester with very little trouble; it remained only to win over London. Matilda had given him his earldom, which included Suffolk. Henry of Huntingdon, ed. Kenji Yoshitake represents the current academic consensus when he notes that the impact of the arrests "was not serious", placing the beginning of the disintegration of the royal government at the subsequent Battle of Lincoln. Henry of Huntingdon, ed.
Captives were bound in pairs like hounds and carried off so that they could later be ransomed. One of her acts on being accepted into London, was to demand a tax. In the event, not all the pro-Angevins of the war period gained enormously from its outcome. One suggestion was apparently that, if released, Stephen should enter a monastery. The outcome of the war had given the throne to Henry, already Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou and claimant to the duchy of Aquitaine. We have no evidence that he ever expressed any regret over the agreement.
It must have undermined support for Stephen. Robert of Gloucester had set out against Bath, one of the few important strongholds held by Stephen in the west. He claimed that the empress intended to arrest him. John the Marshal, who held Marlborough Castle, was another early recruit. Basically, it was a typical Norman motte and bailey castle, and was strengthened in stone. He had made some very extravagant promises in 1153, which thanks to the number of deaths of expected beneficiaries, did not have to be kept in 1154. Malcolm proved no match for Henry II.
Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht. Not only were charters issued, but their form developed and improved during the reign. He also claimed that adulterine, or at least recently built, castles, should be demolished. The achievements and successes of war depended on the aims, as did the method of fighting. The king decided to build two counter castles and leave a besieging force in them while he went to wage war in the west. The Anarchy of King Stephen's Reign. The same source gives another strange tale, also usually ignored.
The Feudal Kingdom of England, 1042—1216 5thed. But what is the case? He was reconciled to the king, but could never become one of his most trusted men, and on his death the earldom was not continued. This was not a loss, since although Simon had maintained a claim to the earldom of Huntingdon, Stephen had given that earldom to the son of the King of Scots. Hereward had finally been flushed out, but only with great difficulty, and he had survived into an obscure end. What we truly know is that Stephen-Henry did return to the Holy Land, and then bravely fought in the continuing conflict, and lost his life in doing so. Returning south, Stephen held his first royal court at Easter 1136. As was common, the royalists began to seek control over surrounding strongpoints which might offer help.
He left his father and returned home to Cambridge to gather more funds for a fresh campaign, where he fell ill and died the next month. Faramus held these lands to his death in about 1183, when they passed to his heir. On his death Blois and Champagne were separated in the hands of two of his sons: Theobald V and Henry the Liberal. Worcester, in Stevenson, p. How did Stephen raise the money to pay his mercenaries? Amt, Henry II, p. Worcester, in Stevenson, p.
Like many other pro-Angevins, he had not gained a great deal by the change, and had lost one of his major strongholds. In a civil war, the fighting could often be bloody, but there was every reason to capture rather than kill enemy knights, for ransom, and as a sign of tit for tat mercy. Stephen was conveniently placed in Boulogne, and when news reached him of Henry's death he left for England, accompanied by his military household. But in fact she supported his candidate for the see of Durham, William Cumin, against the wishes of the local church, and with unfortunate results for herself in terms of church support. This was partly because Henry was not vindictive.