Stages of demographic transition. Demographic Transition Theory: Definition & Examples 2022-11-06

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Demographic transition is the process by which a society's population changes over time. It is characterized by shifts in fertility, mortality, and population growth rates. The stages of demographic transition can be divided into four main phases: pre-industrial, transitional, industrial, and post-industrial.

  1. Pre-industrial phase: This is the first stage of demographic transition and is characterized by high fertility and mortality rates. In pre-industrial societies, fertility and mortality rates are high because of a lack of access to modern healthcare and poor living conditions. As a result, the population growth rate is relatively stable, with the number of births and deaths roughly equal.

  2. Transitional phase: This is the second stage of demographic transition and is characterized by a decrease in mortality rates and a subsequent increase in population growth. This phase is marked by improvements in living conditions and healthcare, which lead to a decrease in infant mortality and an increase in life expectancy. As a result, the population begins to grow more rapidly.

  3. Industrial phase: This is the third stage of demographic transition and is characterized by a further decrease in mortality rates and a decrease in fertility rates. In industrial societies, access to education and employment opportunities for women often leads to a decrease in fertility rates as people choose to have fewer children. This, combined with continued improvements in healthcare, leads to a further decrease in mortality rates and an increase in the population growth rate.

  4. Post-industrial phase: This is the final stage of demographic transition and is characterized by low fertility and mortality rates. In post-industrial societies, fertility rates are often below the replacement level, meaning that the population is not growing as rapidly as in previous stages. This is often due to increased access to education, employment opportunities, and modern healthcare, which leads to smaller family sizes and longer life expectancy.

In conclusion, demographic transition is a process that occurs over time and is marked by shifts in fertility, mortality, and population growth rates. Understanding the stages of demographic transition can help policymakers and researchers understand and predict population trends and make informed decisions about the future.

Demographic Transition Theory: Definition & Examples

stages of demographic transition

Stages of Demographic Transition Pre-Industrial Stage The first stage of the demographic transition is the pre-industrial stage. These economic and social factors are retarding the state of living standards. The World War II economy brought enormous technological advances. When the death rate declines during the second stage of the transition, the result is primarily an increase in the younger population. As a result, Stages of the Demographic Transition These changes in population that occurred in Europe and North America have been called the demographic transition. Due to more population but fewer resources, the availability of food is very low which causes a high death rate also.

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What Is the Demographic Transition Model?

stages of demographic transition

The Continuing Demographic Transition. The varieties of food and opportunities to meet with distant neighbors outside the extended family offered the potential to find marriage partners, thus increasing the gene pool. What caused Stage 2 of the demographic transition model to occur in Africa? Agriculture and industries start developing which leads to the development of the tertiary sector also. In Cronk, L; Chagnon, NA; Irons, W eds. Western countries have tended to progress through the stages linearly, from non-industrial to post-industrial but depending upon variations in population growth and economic, technological, and social development, a country may have a divergent pathway. Population growth registers zero, and even negative! As the country becomes highly developed there is no further possibility of fall in birth rate and death rate.

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The Theory of Demographic Transition 5 Stages

stages of demographic transition

There are four stages in the demographic transition. Here urbaniĀ­zation- industrialization-modernization factors together resulted in lowering of the birth rate, and lowering of the death rate too. However, they used tools and techniques from the transitional stage to quickly develop towns and villages as trade and professional services centers. Examples of Stage 3 countries are Botswana, Colombia, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, and the United Arab Emirates, just to name a few. Also, more industrial technology means that societal values tend to shift away from rural and agricultural lives to urban, industrial ones.

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What are 5 stages of demographic transition?

stages of demographic transition

France's demographic transition was unusual in that the mortality and the natality decreased at the same time, thus there was no demographic boom in the 19th century. Rates are expected to increase populations in Mexico, India and the U. The concept of demographic transition is a good predictor of how a county will change both in population size and socially as it transitions from non-industrial to industrial. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. From the beginning of human history up until the first Industrial Revolution in the 1700s, this was the basic pattern for all human societies.

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4 Main Stages of Demographic Transition

stages of demographic transition

Birth rate may be less than the death rate resulting in net decrease of population. The birth rate is lower than the death rate, so their rate of increase is negative. This stage is when countries move from subsistence farming into more organized agricultural and mechanized specialization. Mortality rates are now positively stable from year to year and birth rates, responsive to voluntary decisions rather than to deeply embedded customs, may fluctuate from year to year. It also led to train transport, which improved the distribution of food. The birth rates and death rates remain low due the economic and social changes of the previous stages.

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6.22: Demographic Transition

stages of demographic transition

Motivations have changed from traditional and economic ones to those of self-realization. The population of Russia nearly quadrupled during the 19th century, from 30 million to 133 million, and continued to grow until the First World War and the turmoil that followed. This gave rise to the demographic transition theory, which predicts trends in birth and death rates in countries based on their level of industrial development. It is not necessarily applicable at very high levels of development. As with all models, this is an idealized picture of population change in these countries. In other words, people move to the city and buy food, rather than growing it themselves.

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Stage 1 of the Demographic Transition Model

stages of demographic transition

The birth rate is high because the factors which influence birth rate such as urbanisation, education, attitude towards family size, social traditions, religious attitudes etc. The concept of demographic transition has four stages, including the pre-industrial stage, the transition stage, the industrial stage, and the post-industrial stage. The most recent census figures show that an outpouring of the urban population means that fewer rural areas are continuing to register a negative migratory flow ā€” two-thirds of rural communities have shown some since 2000. This stage is generally visible in the developing economy. Due to this, the standard of living rises with more economic and social developments. Campbell thus questions the underlying assumptions governing the debate about historical demography in Africa and suggests that the demographic impact of political forces be reevaluated in terms of their changing interaction with "natural" demographic influences.

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Demographic transition

stages of demographic transition

Demographic Transition Model in United States The United States is a unique case for demographic transition as it did not develop entirely organically, as it did in Western Europe. What are countries in demographic transition? Rapid decrease in death rates with birth rates remaining high, causing an increase in population. Beginning around 1800, there was a sharp fertility decline; at this time, an average woman usually produced seven births per lifetime, but by 1900 this number had dropped to nearly four. The Industrial Revolution brought with it a variety of technological improvements in agricultural production and food supply. As of right now, countries like Afghanistan, Yemen, and Laos, amongst others, match this trend.

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Demographic Transition Model

stages of demographic transition

As the gap between death rates and birth rates closes, the human population will stop increasing and remain stable. Other factors include a higher number of educated, professional women, increased costs of childcare as a result of child labor laws and mandatory education, and increased social pressure to essentially spoil the children you have. The Southern East Coast remained mainly in the transitional stage, with agriculture, particularly textiles, as the most significant economic activity. The only area where this pattern did not hold was the American South. With the growing industrialisation of the economy, the adoption of small family norm become very much popular among the people of higher sections of society and then it started to percolate among the lower sections of society. Fertility decline is caused as much by changes in values about children and gender as by the availability of contraceptives and knowledge of how to use them. During this stage, the human population begins to increase due to high birth rates and declining death rates.

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