Shifting agriculture in india. What is Shifting Agriculture: A Guide to Characteristics, Process, and Types for Beginners 2022-11-02
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Shifting agriculture, also known as slash-and-burn agriculture, is a traditional agricultural practice that has been utilized by indigenous communities in India for centuries. It involves the clearing of a small plot of land by cutting and burning vegetation, planting crops for a few seasons, and then abandoning the field once the soil nutrients have been depleted. The process is then repeated on a new plot of land, allowing for a rotation of fields and a natural replenishment of nutrients in the soil.
In India, shifting agriculture is most commonly practiced by tribal communities in the central and eastern parts of the country. These communities rely on the practice as a means of subsistence and have a deep cultural and spiritual connection to the land.
However, shifting agriculture has come under criticism in recent years due to its impact on the environment. The clearing of vegetation and burning of fields releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, contributing to climate change. It can also lead to soil erosion and degradation, as the constant shifting of fields does not allow for the establishment of permanent vegetation cover.
There have been efforts to modernize and improve the sustainability of shifting agriculture in India. One such approach is the promotion of agroforestry, which combines the cultivation of crops with the planting of trees and other vegetation. This can help to mitigate some of the negative environmental impacts of shifting agriculture and provide additional benefits such as shade and wind protection for crops, and habitat for wildlife.
Additionally, the Indian government has implemented policies and programs to support the transition of shifting agriculture practitioners to more sustainable farming practices. These include training programs, access to credit and other resources, and the development of alternative livelihoods.
Despite these efforts, shifting agriculture remains a controversial and complex issue in India. While it is a vital source of livelihood for many indigenous communities, it is also recognized as having negative environmental impacts. Finding a balance between the needs of these communities and the need to protect the environment will require a combination of policy, education, and support.
List of local names of shifting cultivation around the world
The government of India targets to increase the average income of a farmer household at current prices to Rs 2,19,724 by 2022-23 from Rs 96,703 in 2015-16. Retrieved 29 November 2012. What are The Main Features of Shifting Cultivation? Rice, jute, and sugarcane are cultivated in such mode of agriculture. SC differs not only from state to state in the northeast but village to village and among families too. SSC Section Officer Audit 2006 A. Indian Agriculture and Farmers-Problems and Reforms.
ClearIAS Intelligent Elimination Techniques IETs : 40 IETs to solve difficult questions using logic and common sense. Accessed on 22 March 2021. The gross area under jhum in all the 6 villages would be around 10000 hectares. Cultivation of the earth after clearing is usually accomplished by hoe or digging stick and not by plough. Shifting axe-cultivation consists of felling trees on a hill-side a little before the sowing season and setting them on fire.
Crop yields vary significantly between Indian states. The dense forests supply them with everything they need to survive, including timber to build homes, food and medicines, increasing the probability they can earn livelihoods and survive. While shifting agriculture is known by several local names across a considerable portion of Northeast India, its main traits are found to be uniform. This is where we need to make efforts to study and come up with technology and approaches which address mountain agriculture, which blends in the traditional approaches of these farmers with modern science. An example of intensive cultivation is in Kerala where the availability of land for cultivation is very limited.
Why do Indigenous Communities Continue to Practice Shifting Cultivation?
Subsistence farming, extensive farming and arable farming are examples of Shifting agriculture. However, such transformative changes, such as the increased dominance of settled agriculture, for example, could have unintended consequences, such as the erosion of their rich cultural traditions. Their land, due to remoteness, poor access to markets and undulating terrain, leaves them with few alternatives. Different names of shifting cultivation in different areas In the hilly states of northeastern India, it is referred to as Jhum or Jum, in Orissa, Podu, Dabi, Koman or Bringa, in the Western Ghats, as Watra, in the southeast of Rajasthan, as Penda, Bewar or Dahia, and in the Madhya Pradesh district of Bastar, as Deppa or Kumari. Also read: Because of the relatively inaccessible mountainous and hilly locations, access to markets is difficult and therefore indigenous communities derive a higher sense of economic security from SC, explaining the third most important factor — economic bonding.
Retrieved 28 March 2021. Cultivation then shifts to a new plot. Included in the table is the average productivity of India's farms for each produce. For example, Japan and the United States currently use it for business purposes. Further, it explores innovations which can help resolve the current situation, wherein government interventions are not taking effect. There are very few countries in the world that have variety comparable to that of India.
Shifting Agriculture in Primitive Societies in India
Shifting cultivation in Northeast India is still prevalent and is practiced by the indigenous communities. The predominance of food crops: The production of food crops is the priority of the farmers almost everywhere in the country. Organic inputs and herbal remedies will be used where ever possible. Accessed on 22 March 2021. The crop diversity of shifting cultivators is extremely rich compared with the sedentarised and often mono-cropped agricultural land-use alternatives.
Shifting cultivation: more than a means of livelihood
Follow her on Twitter: aimeegabay This article first appeared on. Retrieved 9 May 2019. The local ceremonies and rituals are held at the end of a successful harvest. It is an export-oriented agriculture and grown in plantation agriculture have a life cycle of more than two years. Forest Policy and Economics, Vol. The visit helped us assess the success of government efforts and to see if transformative programmes have succeeded in bringing back the forests through the promotion of settled agricultural practices.
What is Shifting Agriculture: A Guide to Characteristics, Process, and Types for Beginners
Soil erosion is also checked due to terrace formation on hill slopes. This is particularly the case with shifting cultivation. Migration and In case you missed it: Cropping patterns in shifting agriculture As far as cropping patterns in shifting agriculture are concerned, adopt mixed cropping. So, where are the forests? Based on a survey of 500 people drawn from 52 villages, representing six districts in northeast India; Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, they highlighted key findings on the impacts of transformative adaptation, specifically the socio-economic and environmental impacts of shifting away from SC towards other uses. It is important to understand the roles and responsibilities that women play in their homes and communities when we talk of transforming shifting cultivation. The farming ecosystem in a Trust-based Economy, inducing referrals has been key to the growth of the platform.
Hybrids and Genetically modified varieties will not be used. This is increasingly the focus of Indian agriculture policy. Retrieved 14 January 2019. Some reports claim smallholder farming may not be cause of poor productivity, since the productivity is higher in China and many developing economies even though China smallholder farmers constitute over 97% of its farming population. Importance of Shifting Cultivation The Importance of it includes the advantages and disadvantages of this farming. Several social and institutional reasons exist for the widespread practice of shifting cultivation. The village is remote and the condition of the road linking Aben to Jiribam town 65 km away is very poor.
[Commentary] Shifting cultivation landscapes in transition