Ruhollah Khomeini, also known as Ayatollah Khomeini, was a Shia Muslim cleric and the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran. He was born on September 24, 1902 in the small town of Khomeyn, located in what is now Iran. Khomeini's father was a cleric and his family was deeply religious.
Khomeini received a traditional religious education, studying at the madrasa (Islamic seminary) in the city of Arak. He later moved to the city of Qom to continue his studies, and it was there that he began to develop his ideas about Islam and politics. Khomeini was influenced by the writings of the Iranian theologian and philosopher, Ayatollah Abdul-Karim Haeri Yazdi, who taught that the government should be based on Islamic principles and that the clergy should play a leading role in society.
Khomeini's political views were shaped by the political climate of the time. In the 1950s and 60s, Iran was ruled by a secular, Western-oriented government led by the Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. The Shah's government was widely seen as corrupt and oppressive, and Khomeini was an outspoken critic of the regime. In 1963, Khomeini was arrested and imprisoned for his opposition to the Shah's government.
After his release from prison, Khomeini continued to speak out against the Shah and his government. In 1978, widespread protests against the Shah's regime broke out in Iran, and Khomeini emerged as a leader of the opposition. He called for the overthrow of the Shah and the establishment of an Islamic government based on the principles of justice, equality, and respect for human rights.
In 1979, the Shah was overthrown and Khomeini returned to Iran from exile in France. He became the leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and implemented a number of changes based on his vision for an Islamic state. These included the implementation of Islamic laws, the promotion of Islamic values, and the establishment of a theocracy in which the clergy played a leading role in government.
Khomeini's rule was marked by both successes and controversies. On the one hand, he is credited with improving the living standards of many Iranians, especially the poor, and with bringing a sense of national pride and identity to the country. On the other hand, his regime was known for its strict adherence to Islamic law, which led to the suppression of individual rights and freedoms, particularly for women and minorities.
Khomeini died on June 3, 1989, at the age of 86. His legacy in Iran is complex and controversial, but he remains an important figure in the country's history and a symbol of resistance to foreign influence and oppression.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Biography
Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah. Through these methods, Khomeini became the accepted leader of the Iranian opposition to the government of the Shah. John Kifner wrote in The New York Times that the "body of the Ayatollah, wrapped in a white burial shroud, fell out of the flimsy wooden coffin, and in a mad scene people in the crowd reached to touch the shroud". Saddam's Generals: Perspectives of the Iran-Iraq War. His ancestors migrated towards the end of the 18th century from their original home in Nishapur, Khorasan province, in northeastern part of Iran, for a short stay, to the Kingdom of Awadh, a region in the modern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, whose rulers were Twelver Shia Muslims of Persian origin.
Other Iranian politicians including Ebrahim Yazdi Khomeini's spokesman and adviser at the time of the revolution have questioned the BBC's documents. Many who protested against his regime were killed, and Khomeini had his doctrines and beliefs taught in public schools. The ban lasted 10 years approximately the rest of his life. He began to cultivate a group of dedicated pupils who became his staunchest supporters during his days as an Islamic revolutionary. Radicalization of Khomeini's religiopolitical ideas and his entry into active political opposition in the second phase of his life reflected a combination of circumstances.
Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa: A Biographical Dictionary. His portraits were removed from offices and mosques. Khomeini moved to Paris, which was to be his last place of residence before his triumphant return to Iran. However, once in power his ideas often clashed with those of modernist or secular Iranian intellectuals. The 1981 Hafte Tir bombing escalated the conflict, leading to increasing arrests, torture, and executions of thousands of Iranians. The first phase, from 1908 to 1962, was marked mainly by training, teaching, and writing in the field of Islamic studies. Routledge; 1 edition May 20, 2017.
On 5 June 1963 15 of Khordad at 3:00am, two days after this public denunciation of the Shah, Khomeini was detained in Qom and transferred to Tehran. Revolutions And Revolutionary Movements. Power, Legitimacy and the Public Sphere: The Iranian Taziyeh Theatre Ritual. In die Twaalfer-Sjiisme, die Islamitiese staatsgodsdiens van Iran, was Chomeini 'n marja of "bron van hoogste godsdienstige gesag" en skrywer van meer as veertig religieuse boeke, alhoewel hy veral danksy sy politieke aktiwiteite en weerstand teen die sjah-bewind bekendheid verwerf het. His father, Mustapha Musavi, was the chief cleric of the town where he was murdered only five months after the birth of Ruhollah.
Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah. Iran Under the Ayatollahs Routledge Revivals. Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah. In his Islamic Government Hokumat-e Islami —which is a collection of his lectures in Najaf Iraq published in 1970—he rejected both the Iranian Constitution as an alien import from Belgium and monarchy in general. On February 11 revolutionary forces allied to Khomeini seized power in Iran.
Minority religions Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians are officially recognized and protected by the government. Iran: Empire of the Mind: A History from Zoroaster to the Present Day. In a "Letter to Clergy" he wrote: ". To commemorate Khomeini, people visit his mausoleum placed on Behesht-e Zahra to hear sermons and practice prayers on his death day. Minority religionsSee also: Persecution of Baháʼís Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians are officially recognized and protected by the government. In the meantime, however, Khomeini was careful not to publicize his ideas for clerical rule outside of his Islamic network of opposition to the Shah which he worked to build and strengthen over the next decade.
Khomeini was known for his support of the hostage takers during the Iran hostage crisis, his fatwa calling for the murder of British Indian novelist Salman Rushdie, and for referring to the United States as the "Great Satan" and the Soviet Union as the "Lesser Satan". The New York Times. The Iran Primer: Power, Politics, and U. After spending eleven days in Jamaran hospital, Ruhollah Khomeini died on 3 June 1989 after suffering five heart attacks in just ten days, at the age of 86 just before midnight. Khomeini also wrote that since Muslims must support a government based on Islamic law, Sharia-based government will always have more popular support in Muslim countries than any government based on elected representatives.
In terms of foreign policy, the main characteristics of the third revolution were the continuation of the Iraq-Iran war, increasing rapprochement with the Soviet Union, and expanded efforts to export the "Islamic revolution. At the same time, amidst the religious orthodoxy, there was an active effort to rehabilitate women into employment. One non-Muslim group treated differently were the 300,000 members of the Baháʼí Faith. Female participation in healthcare, education and the workforce increased drastically during his regime. Islamic Book Trust June 1, 2010.