Roosevelt coal strike. Roosevelt vs Coal Strike 2022-11-04
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Utilitarianism is a moral theory that holds that the right course of action is the one that maximizes overall utility or happiness. Utility, in this context, refers to the overall well-being or satisfaction of all individuals affected by an action. This theory was developed by philosophers Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill in the 18th and 19th centuries, and it remains a influential and widely debated ethical theory to this day.
One of the key characteristics of utilitarianism is its emphasis on the collective good. Utilitarians believe that actions should be evaluated based on the consequences they produce for the greatest number of people. This means that the well-being of each individual is considered equally important, and the goal is to create the greatest net benefit for society as a whole.
Another characteristic of utilitarianism is its focus on consequences. Utilitarians believe that the rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by the outcomes it produces, rather than by the intention behind it. This means that an action can be considered moral or ethical even if it was not performed with good intentions, as long as it leads to positive consequences for the greatest number of people.
Utilitarianism is also a type of consequentialist ethics, which means that it evaluates actions based on the consequences they produce rather than the inherent moral qualities of the actions themselves. This stands in contrast to deontological ethics, which hold that some actions are inherently right or wrong, regardless of the consequences they produce.
One criticism of utilitarianism is that it can lead to moral dilemmas in situations where the greatest good for the greatest number of people conflicts with the rights or interests of a minority group. For example, it might be argued that it is in the best interests of society to sacrifice the well-being of a small number of people in order to produce a greater overall benefit for the majority. Utilitarians might respond to this criticism by arguing that the rights and interests of individuals should be protected, as long as they do not significantly undermine the overall utility of an action.
In conclusion, utilitarianism is a moral theory that emphasizes the collective good and the consequences of actions. It is a consequentialist theory that evaluates the rightness or wrongness of actions based on the outcomes they produce. While it has been subject to criticism, it remains a influential and widely debated ethical theory.
Statement on the End of the Coal Strike.
What happened after the Anthracite Strike of 1902? About 140,000 workers demanded 20% increase in pay, reduction of work day to 9 hours, and several other improvements. Why did the miners go on strike? The coal barons expected to wait them out. Coal was extracted from deep shafts and the process was labor-intensive. Roosevelt had taken office eight months earlier, in September 1901, after President William McKinley was assassinated by a disgruntled former factory worker. The president consulted governors and senators about how to bring the strike to a peaceful end.
What was the coal strike of 1902 and how was it resolved?
As the Selective Service Act does not authorize the induction of men above 45 years into the armed services, I intend to request the Congress to raise the age limit for non-combat military service to 65 years. He said that he would use all of the authority of his office to bring about that solution. The owners refused to meet with or to arbitrate with the union. The Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902 resulted in a victory for the hard-coal miners with a 10% increase in wages and an hours reduction in their working day. Anthracite—or hard coal—was solid and rich in carbon, ideal for industrial and domestic use. He wanted to assert the primacy of government over business.
The president heard from business leaders so desperate they proposed he take over the coal mines. The strike led to violence between the strikers on one side and strikebreakers, the Pennsylvania National Guard, local police, and hired detective agencies on the other. Strikes became common during the Industrial Revolution, when mass labor became important in factories and mines. It is just how Roosevelt prevented the coal strike from hurting consumers by stopping the strike. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances. Hesummonedrepresentatives of the striking miners and the mine owners to the White House. Their efforts yielded no results, though.
As president, Roosevelt took steps to conserve forests, mineral deposits, and water resources. In early October, he invited the coal executives and the union leader, John Mitchell, to Washington in an attempt to mediate a settlement. I ask because it is a question continually being asked of me. In Washington on October 3, 1902, he met with presidents of the mine-owning railroads and union leaders. With the conflict unresolved, Henry Cabot Lodge, a senior Republican and close friend of Theodore Roosevelt, warned the president of the potentially disastrous consequences for the party if the anthracite strike dragged into November, when elections were to be held.
They found that social conditions in mine communities were generally good, and miners were only partly justified in their claim that annual earnings were not sufficient to live on. You just studied 57 terms! On Friday, October 3, 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt called a precedent-shattering meeting at the temporary White House at 22 Lafayette Place, Washington, D. Becoming President of the …show more content… P. The saw it as support for union recognition, something they opposed. Some manufacturers had to get by with sawdust in their furnaces. Before the leaders of the United Mine Workers decided to direct the miners to return to work, the Government had taken steps to set up the machinery for inducting into the armed services all miners subject to the Selective Service Act, who absented themselves without just cause from work in the mines under Government operation.
On June 8, 1902 he asked his Commissioner of Labor, Carroll D. They claimed that with proper protection, they could produce enough coal to end the fuel shortage. Or Roosevelt could ask the Board of Trade and Transportation to help resolve the strike. He threatened to send in the army to work the mines. The time had come for him to intervene directly. Roosevelt attempted to persuade the union to end the strike with a promise that he would create a commission to study the causes of the strike and propose a solution, which Roosevelt promised to support with all of the authority of his office. Where the federal government in the past had been strongly pro-business in such labor disputes, it now acted in a more neutral manner.
Republican Party Senator Mark Hanna of Ohio was both the owner of bituminous coal mines though not ones involved in the strike , and a close friend of the sitting President, William McKinley. Taking action would be a fatal mistake, he said. But once Roosevelt left office, as events would show, the rights of the working man were still far from secure. Roosevelt congratulated the commissioners and invited them to a dinner to celebrate their success. The anthracite coal miners worked in dangerous conditions, were often underpaid and in debt, and knew the hardship to come. The Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902 resulted in a victory for the hard-coal miners with a 10% increase in wages and an hours reduction in their working day. What was significant about the coal strike of 1902 quizlet? He wanted to assert the primacy of government over business.
How did Theodore Roosevelt resolve the coal strike in 1902?
In 1902 the Pennsylvania coal miners walked out of the mines in a wage dispute. Ultimately, the miners won a ten percent increase in pay and a nine-hour workday. George Baer, President of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, who spoke for the mine owners, rejected both proposals. They determined not to go back to work until they had improved their conditions. In Chicago, residents tore out wooden paving from their streets to use as fuel. Roosevelt replied that he had no intention of doing anything just yet. Federal troops were used in the great Railroad Strikes of 1877 and 1894, for instance.
The Coal Strike That Defined Theodore Roosevelt's Presidency
They agreed to a 10% pay increase and a 9 hour work day. In the moment—and even more so in the next years, as he pushed a progressive agenda —Roosevelt considered his intervention in the strike one of the great achievements of his presidency. The action of the leaders of the United Mine Workers coal miners has been intolerable—and has rightly stirred up the anger and disapproval of the overwhelming mass of the American people. In the alternative, Mitchell proposed that a committee of clergymen produce a report on conditions in the coalfields. A number of small strikes took place in the region where anthracite was mined from 1899 to 1901, and the union organinized more workers as a result. He also feared that the public hostility toward the coal industry might spread to his other, more profitable, companies.
The Coal Strike That Defined Theodore Roosevelt’s Presidency
They voted to go out on strike. Mark Hanna and others leading Republicans were concerned about the political implications if the strike dragged on into winter, when the need for anthracite was greatest. It was illegal for the owners to conspire to shut down production, but if the miners went on strike, they could achieve the same result. A month into the coal strike—as railroads and factories began to conserve their coal supplies—it looked as though the President might get involved. He believed in the need for conservation, the protection and preservation of natural resources. How did Roosevelt intercede in the Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902? The miners had asked for 20% wage increases, and most were given a 10% increase.