# Ripple tank experiment lab report. Ripple Tank(11).docx 2022-11-01

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A ripple tank is a shallow tank of water used to study the properties of waves. It is a useful tool for demonstrating the basic principles of wave behavior, such as reflection, refraction, and diffraction. In this lab report, we will discuss the results of an experiment conducted using a ripple tank.

The experiment was conducted using a ripple tank, a wave generator, a ruler, and a stopwatch. The wave generator was used to create a series of waves in the tank, and the ruler and stopwatch were used to measure the wavelength and frequency of the waves.

To begin the experiment, the wave generator was turned on and a series of waves was produced in the tank. The wavelength of the waves was measured by placing the ruler in the path of the waves and measuring the distance between successive crests. The frequency of the waves was measured by counting the number of waves that passed a fixed point in a given time period, using the stopwatch to measure the time.

The results of the experiment showed that the wavelength and frequency of the waves were directly related. As the frequency of the waves increased, the wavelength decreased. This is in accordance with the equation that describes the relationship between wavelength and frequency, known as the wave equation.

In addition to measuring the wavelength and frequency of the waves, we also observed the behavior of the waves as they interacted with objects placed in the tank. When an object was placed in the path of the waves, the waves were either reflected, refracted, or diffracted, depending on the shape and size of the object.

Reflection occurred when the waves hit a flat surface and were reflected back into the tank. Refraction occurred when the waves passed through an object and changed direction. Diffraction occurred when the waves passed around the edges of an object and spread out in all directions.

Overall, the ripple tank experiment was a useful way to demonstrate the basic principles of wave behavior. It allowed us to measure the wavelength and frequency of the waves and observe how they interacted with objects in the tank. These findings can be used to better understand the behavior of waves in the real world.

## Lab 2 (Ripple Tank) ABSTRACT Ripple tank is one of the physics education devices most appreciated by teachers. When the plane wave moves over the refractor, it9s speed decreases because the refractor is a denser medium with larger angle of incidence. The angle of incidence and reflection in the case of plane surface will then be measured, and if equal, they will prove that the law of reflection is true. We turned on the ripple generator and the light source. Bright and dark fringes: The waves are seen on the paper below the ripple tank in the form of bright and dark fringes. This property of waves is explained by the law of reflection which emphasizes that the angle of incidence and reflection must be same in all cases.

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## Applied Physics Lab report 4, Ripple opportunities.alumdev.columbia.edu Turn off the ripple generator. Troughs: The dark fringes represent the troughs. When a wave reflects from a surface, the angle of incidence is the angle between the incoming or incident ray and the normal a line perpendicular to the surface. All the basic properties of the waves, including reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction, can be demonstrated. The angle of incidence and reflection will be measured in plan surface and if equal, it shows that the law of reflection is true. These are the incoming wave fronts. Waves are generated by wave generator whose frequency and amplitude can be controlled.

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## Ripple opportunities.alumdev.columbia.edu R will increase, the radius of the circle will increase and vice versa CONCLUSION: In the above experiments, we learned the behavior of reflection of plane waves from straight and curved barriers. We set the ripple generator frequency to 20 Hz. It basically consists of a tank, wave generator and a light source. It consists of a tank, wave generator and a light source. Show the center of the circle and measure the radius of the circle. In the case of convex or concave barriers, the distance between the point where the reflected waves interfere destructively and the middle of the barrier will be one half of the distance of the two normal drawn from 2 points, symmetrically placed, at a distance away from the middle of the barrier.

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## 2 THEORY: Reflection is the change in direction of a wave front at an interface between two different media ray is a line that indicates the direction of motion of a plane wave. Wavelength: The distance between two consecutive crests or troughs is called wavelength. We mount the light source onto its rod at the back edge of the ripple tank. Also, we came to know that the wave front of water waves is always perpendicular to the direction of motion of the wave. The ripples on the water show up as shadows on the screen underneath the tank.

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## Ripple Tank(11).docx The law of reflection tells us how it bounces off that surface. We placed the long straight barrier in the middle of the tank and added about 800 mL of water to the tank or enough water so that the water level is about halfway up the long straight barrier. The Law of Reflection states the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection and that the reflected ray lies in the plane of incidence. The angle of reflection is the angle between the reflected ray and the normal to the surface. We used a rod and base to support the ripple generator and position the generator over the midpoint of one side of the ripple tank. Theory : Reflection encompasses the bouncing back of a wave front when it strikes another medium denser.

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## Ripple Tank Lab opportunities.alumdev.columbia.edu The outline of the shadow of the reflected water waves is traced onto the paper. In the 2nd part of experiment, the radius of the smaller circle rightly came out to be the scalar multiple of the radius of curved barrier. Introduction: Ripple tank is an apparatus to study water waves like reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference etc. Set the ripple generator frequency to 15 Hz or less. Adjust the specific frequency of the ripple generator and strobe light so that stationary image of waves obtained. This represents the incoming ray, so draw an arrow on it pointing to the refractor.

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## Lab Ripple opportunities.alumdev.columbia.edu We placed a sheet of paper directly under the ripple tank so you will be able to sketch the images of the waves that are projected onto the sheet by the light source. How is the radius of the circle related to the distance between the curved barrier and the point where the reflected plane waves from the plane wave dipper appeared to converge? We connected the plane wave dipper to the ripple arms. We turned off the ripple generator and light source. Three types of barriers will be used plane barriers, convex barriers and concave barriers. Refraction or the bending of the path of waves is accompanied by a change in speed and wavelength of waves.

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## AP_lab_opportunities.alumdev.columbia.edu The focal length of a convex lens is a measure of how strongly the lens converges light. When we dropped a droplet of water, the reflected wave front assumed a circular shape. It is a specialized form of a wave tank. Radius of curvature: It is defined as the radius of the circle of which the curved surface is a part. Set the light in strobe mode.

Next Bright and dark fringes: The waves are seen on the paper below the ripple tank in the form of bright and dark fringes. Describe the shape of the waves that reflect from the curved barrier. Set the amplitude to slightly less than half of maximum and adjust it as necessary to make a clear pattern of plane waves. In the 1st part of experiment, the angle of incidence came out to be almost equal to the angle of refraction therefore the law of refraction is verified. As the plane wave from the deep water moves through the shallower water over the refractor, does the plane wave speed up or slow down? First, we drew a normal to the surface, then normal to the incident rays and the reflected rays. It is a specialized form of a wave tank. Troughs: The dark fringes represent the troughs.

Next The angle of incidence is the angle between the incident ray and the normal to surface. The ripples on the water show up as shadows on the screen underneath the tank. Screwed to the wood is a motor that has an off centre weight attached to the axle. In the following experiments we studied the reflection and refraction effects of water waves by placing a barrier in the ripple tank and measured quantities like angle of incidence, angle of reflection, angle of refraction, focal length, radius of curvature, refractive index etc. The tank is 42. DATA ANALYSIS: Drawthe traced circular shape of the curved barrier using a compass or stencil. We placed the ruler parallel with a reflected wave and again made a line to show the outgoing reflected wave front.

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