Representative participation refers to the involvement of individuals or groups in the political process through the selection of representatives who act on their behalf. This is a key feature of modern democracy and is intended to ensure that all members of society have a voice in the decision-making process. Representative participation can take many forms, including elections, lobbying, and public consultation.
One of the primary advantages of representative participation is that it allows for the efficient and effective functioning of government. By electing representatives to act on their behalf, citizens can ensure that their concerns are heard and addressed by those in positions of power. This can be particularly important for marginalized or disadvantaged groups who may not have the resources or access to effectively advocate for themselves.
Another benefit of representative participation is that it helps to promote accountability and transparency in government. Elected representatives are accountable to the voters who put them in office and are expected to act in the best interests of their constituents. This can create a strong incentive for representatives to be responsive to the needs and concerns of their constituents and to be transparent in their decision-making.
However, representative participation is not without its drawbacks. One potential disadvantage is that it can lead to a disconnect between elected representatives and the citizens they represent. This can occur if representatives prioritize their own interests or those of special interest groups over those of their constituents. This can also occur if representatives are unresponsive to the concerns of their constituents or if there is a lack of transparency in their decision-making process.
Despite these potential drawbacks, representative participation remains a vital component of modern democracy. By ensuring that all members of society have a voice in the political process, representative participation promotes accountability, transparency, and inclusivity in government. It is therefore important that citizens engage in the process by voting, participating in public consultations, and holding their representatives accountable for their actions.
Management: Employment and Representative Participation Free Essay Example
Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy. Retrieved 15 May 2022. Photo by: surpasspro A manager's style is determined by the situation, the needs and personalities of his or her employees, and by the culture of the organization. Representative Democracy in the U. Organizational restructuring and the accompanying cultural change has caused management styles to come in and go out of fashion. Democratic innovations: designing institutions for citizen participation.
What is representative participation? Discuss its influence on workers.
By periodically reviewing employees' performance goals can be modified or new goals can be set. It can invite corruption: Candidates may misrepresent their stances on issues or policy goals in order to achieve political power. If power is dangerous, popular power is more dangerous because it has a righteous legitimacy. The employees may benefit from greater job interest, enhanced job satisfaction and increased opportunities to develop themselves. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES Management by Objectives MBO is a company-wide process in which employees actively participate in setting goals that are tangible, verifiable, and measurable.
TQM also encourages an ever-changing or continuous process, and emphasizes the ideas of working constantly toward improved quality. Another problem arises when managers not only assign meaningless tasks to their employees but also then expect the employee to continuously consult them for approval. SELF-MANAGED WORK TEAMS Employee empowerment led to the development of self-managed work teams. If management can achieve a positive change in employee attitudes, it is likely to improve not only the morale of employees but also their loyalty and commitment to the organization. Unless term limits apply to the official in question, the only options available to dissatisfied constituents are to vote the representative out of office in the next regular election or, in some cases, to demand a recall election. As defined by Marchington et al 1992 these practices are initiated principally by management and are designed to increase employee information about, and commitment to, the organization. The organization's culture must support employee involvement and the issues in which employees get involved must be relevant to them.
New York: Free Press, 1966. The Review of Politics. This theory satisfies both lower order and higher order needs. Swiss Political Science Review. Managers using this style gather as much information as possible so that a challenging situation doesn't turn into a bigger problem. Democracy was born in and designed for small-scale societies: towns, poleis, principalities, and city-states of the kind found in ancient The increase in scale that came with the evolution of towns into cities, then city-dominated provinces, and finally nation-states consisting of cities and provinces bound by nationalism mandated a reconsideration of democratic principles. Incorporating group processes in decision making satisfy middle-level needs and encouraging employees to take responsibility for their work and decisions satisfy higher-level needs.
Employees benefit from empowerment because they have more responsibility in their jobs. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. A third category of criticism, primarily advanced by Dr. It is management, however, who makes the final decision on whether employees are to be involved, and to participate, in management decision-making. However, such cultural change can only be achieved in any organization on an incremental basis—the full benefits to the organization from cultural change arising from the successful implementation of involvement methods will not accrue immediately. Theory Z combines elements of both U. B Bonuses improve flexibility of the workforce.
Representative Democracy: Definition, Pros, and Cons
Retrieved 23 April 2021. Then it is also hypothesized that by granting workers greater access to management information, mutual trust and commitment will be increased, thereby employee turnover. Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge. Josiah Ober, Robert W. Managerial styles that focus on managers as technical experts who direct, coordinate and control the work of others have been replaced by those that focus on managers as coaches, counselors, facilitators, and team leaders. Essentials of Organizational Behavior.
Participatory democrats are cognizant of the critique of popular government as a euphemism for the rule of the passions —the sovereignty of the mob over cool reason as embodied in laws —and for that reason have focused on citizen civic education. Consequently, both direct and participatory democracy must rely on some type of representation to sustain a stable system. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1994. The case for employee involvement and participation stems from economic efficiency gains. Messmer illustrates an example of a team working on a project that needs a supplier of plastic molding.
Retrieved 16 April 2021. Juran were the pioneers of the quality movement. Critics conclude that the citizenry is disinterested and leader-dependent, making the mechanism for participatory democracy inherently incompatible with advanced societies. These negotiations are made collectively regarding working conditions, pay, benefits, leaves, and security policies. Board representatives are employees that sit on the board of directors and represent labor interests. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
Behind the Madisonian distrust of direct democracy lies distrust of all popular power. Managers must evaluate their employees' skills and abilities and determine if the organization's culture can support an empowerment program before beginning. There are various benefits of representative participation that have a direct and positive influence on. Participation and Democratic Theory. The set of assumptions for Theory Y is 1 the average human does not dislike work and it is as natural as play; 2 people will exercise self-direction and self-control in order to achieve objectives; 3 rewards of satisfaction and self-actualization are obtained from effort put forth to achieve organizational objectives; 4 the average human being not only accepts but also seeks responsibility; 5 human beings are creative and imaginative in solving organizational problems; and 6 the intellectual potential of the average human is only partially realized. Analytical theory of democracy: history, mathematics and applications.