Polyadenylation. Alternative Polyadenylation alters UBASH3B 2022-10-15
Polyadenylation is a process that occurs at the end of gene transcription in eukaryotes, which are organisms with a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. It involves the addition of a string of adenine nucleotides, known as a poly(A) tail, to the 3' end of a newly synthesized messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule. This process is important for the proper regulation and function of gene expression.
During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase reads the DNA template and synthesizes an mRNA molecule. However, transcription is not always complete, and the mRNA molecule may not include all the coding sequences of the gene. In these cases, the mRNA molecule needs to be modified to include the correct coding sequences. Polyadenylation is one such modification process that adds the necessary coding sequences to the mRNA molecule.
The poly(A) tail is added by an enzyme called polyadenylate polymerase, which uses ATP as a substrate to add adenine nucleotides to the 3' end of the mRNA molecule. This process occurs after transcription is complete and the mRNA molecule has been released from the transcriptional machinery. The poly(A) tail can range in length from a few hundred to several thousand adenine nucleotides, depending on the particular gene and organism.
Polyadenylation has several important functions in gene expression. First, it helps protect the mRNA molecule from degradation by enzymes called nucleases, which break down RNA molecules. The poly(A) tail makes the mRNA molecule more stable and increases its half-life, allowing it to be transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and translated into protein.
Second, polyadenylation helps regulate the expression of specific genes. Different genes have different poly(A) tail lengths, and this length can affect the stability and abundance of the mRNA molecule. For example, genes with longer poly(A) tails tend to have more stable and abundant mRNA molecules, while genes with shorter poly(A) tails tend to have less stable and abundant mRNA molecules.
Finally, polyadenylation is important for the proper splicing and processing of mRNA molecules. The poly(A) tail serves as a binding site for proteins called spliceosomes, which remove introns (non-coding sequences) from the mRNA molecule and join exons (coding sequences) together. This process, known as splicing, produces a mature mRNA molecule that can be translated into a functional protein.
In summary, polyadenylation is a crucial process in gene expression that adds a poly(A) tail to the 3' end of an mRNA molecule. This process helps protect the mRNA molecule from degradation, regulate gene expression, and facilitate the proper splicing and processing of mRNA molecules.
Polyadenylation: Definition, Function, and Mechanism
Current Opinion in Cell Biology. Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly A tail to an RNA transcript, typically a The process of polyadenylation begins as the alternative polyadenylation , similar to The poly A tail is important for the nuclear export, translation and stability of mRNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 11 : 4034—9. Nucleic Acids Research Oxford, England: Oxford University Press Volume 44 Issue 6 : 2475—2490. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 68 6 : 1336—40. Where as in bacteria the polyadenylation promotes the degradation of RNA; in certain cases, this condition leads to non-coding of eukaryotic RNAs. Altogether seven Rho GTPase genes were significantly regulated after bacterial infection, with six genes in the gill after Flavobacterium columnare challenge and two genes in the intestine in response to Edwardsiella ictaluri.
Whereas the rest of the parts expect coding regions in the messenger RNAs remain as the untranslated regions and they just tunes how active the mRNA is. When the RNA polymerase II reaches a termination sequence, the transcription comes to an end with an signaling. In catfishes, Weberian ossicles connect the swimbladder to the inner ear to transfer the forced vibrations and improve hearing ability. They showed good prognosis ability on TNBC risk. This study identified a set of genes and signaling pathways associated with auditory system in the swimbladder of channel catfish and provide resources for further study on the biological and physiological roles in catfish swimbladder.
It is an important process in all the eukaryotes to produce a mature messenger RNA which is greatly used for transcribing. These modification process involves some chemical modifications, polyadenylation and removal of introns. The completion of channel catfish reference genome sequence assembly and annotation Liu et al. The most ancient polyadenylating enzyme is Polyadenylate polymerases are not as ancient. For instance, analysis of alternative splicing was conducted to determine if it was involved as one type of responses of the catfish host to biotic and abiotic stresses such as heat and bacterial infections Tan et al. CPSF is in contact with the RNA polymerase II thus allowing it to rise a signal to the polymerase to end the process of transcription.
However, in some cell types mRNAs has a short poly A tails which are stored for the activation at the later times with the help of re-polyadenylation in the cytosol. Mammalian Genome 19 7—8 : 454—92. This is why translation reduces deadenylation. Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest. This mechanism is known as alternative polyadenylation; it results in the production of several transcripts from a single gene.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta BBA - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms. For NOSG—CG, there was significant differential expression of 175 38. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Annual Review of Biochemistry 66: 173—97. Current Biology 15 16 : R635—8.
International Journal of Medical Sciences. Nucleic Acids Research 36 19 : 6318—32. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 2 4 : 237—46. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides. Cell 121 5 : 713—24. Journal of Bacteriology 190 1 : 98—106.
RNA 6 8 : 1079—90. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology Volume 71. Annual Review of Biochemistry 32: 15—42. Current Opinion in Structural Biology. Of them, the APA event in UBASH3B was proposed as a novel potential biomarker. Gene 265 1—2 : 11—23. Thus, a gene can code for many mRNAs with differing poly A tail positions.
Polyadenylation sites and their characteristics in the genome of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) as revealed by using RNA
The polyadenylation mechanism is sometimes linked to the spliceosome physically which removes the introns from the RNAs. Three of them were ecdysone synthesis pathway genes indicating the ovary as a potential synthesis site of female. To provide a better understanding of polyadenylation in channel catfish, we identified polyadenylation sites at the whole genome level using previously generated RNA-Seq datasets. This work provides an opportunity for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of miRNA regulation in C. The majority of human polyadenylation sites include the sequence AAUAAA, although this pattern is less prevalent in plants and fungi. New York: Garland Science; 2002.
RNA is one of the large biomolecules, where each of them plays an important role in building the nucleotides by acting as a building block. Many eukaryotic genes contain more than one PASs, termed as alternative polyadenylation APA. To identify miRNAs and investigate immune-related miRNAs of C. Principles of biochemistry 2nded. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. RNA 13 7 : 1103—15.
Five cytochrome P450 genes were also identified to be highly expressed in ovary. This finding was consistent with our previous study in channel catfish following infection with Edwardsiella ictaluri. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta BBA - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 1779 4 : 266—9. Nucleic Acids Research 35 19 : e132—e132. Journal of Biological Chemistry.