Polemology is a relatively new term that has gained popularity in recent years. It refers to the study of conflict and how it can be resolved or managed in a constructive and peaceful manner. It is a broad field that encompasses a range of disciplines, including sociology, psychology, political science, and anthropology, and it aims to provide a better understanding of the causes and dynamics of conflict and how to address them effectively.
One of the key insights of polemology is that conflicts are often the result of misunderstandings, miscommunication, or conflicting interests. This means that they can often be resolved through dialogue, negotiation, and compromise, rather than resorting to violence or coercion. Polemologists therefore work to promote peaceful and constructive approaches to conflict resolution, and to develop strategies for managing and resolving conflicts in a way that is fair, just, and equitable.
Polemology also recognizes that conflicts often have complex and multifaceted causes, and that they may be influenced by a wide range of factors such as social, economic, cultural, and political factors. This means that polemologists must be able to analyze conflicts from multiple perspectives and consider the various factors that may contribute to or exacerbate them.
One of the main goals of polemology is to help individuals and groups to better understand and manage conflicts in their own lives and communities. This can involve teaching people how to communicate effectively, listen actively, and work cooperatively with others to find mutually beneficial solutions to conflicts. Polemologists may also work with governments, organizations, and other institutions to help them develop policies and practices that promote peace and conflict resolution.
In summary, polemology is a field that aims to understand and address conflict in a peaceful and constructive manner. It seeks to promote dialogue, negotiation, and compromise as effective means of resolving conflicts and to help individuals and groups to better manage and resolve conflicts in their own lives and communities.
polemology: Meaning and Definition of
Though our aim is not to set an explicit isomorphism between the idea of Lasker and a specific situation within a polemological context, we think that discarding some definite values in an unconventional context represents an excellent means, not only to surprise one's opponent but to cast doubt on their uncontested universality. Cross-references Milligan, Ex parte; West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. In 2002, with war with Iraq imminent, President george w. And, often, regardless of Constitutional right, the Executive Military Power Such presidential power is illustrated by President In the twentieth century several U. Congress can control the food supply during war to ensure that military and civilian needs are met. However, the compensation does not have to be paid in advance or at the time the property is seized.
If a nation sees itself menaced with an attack, its first act of violence to prevent such attack, will be considered as defensive. Other materials may be rationed as well, including gasoline. Our editors update and regularly refine this enormous body of information to bring you reliable information. Government The power of the federal government to conduct war extends to every matter and activity that has an effect on its conduct and progress. . It is not intended here to speak of the latter.
When polemic was borrowed into English from French polemique in the mid-17th century, it referred as it still can to a type of hostile attack on someone's ideas. Infoplease is a reference and learning site, combining the contents of an encyclopedia, a dictionary, an atlas and several almanacs loaded with facts. Congress approved the authorization in 2002, and President Bush declared war on Iraq in March 2003. The act also provides a The act has not prevented subsequent presidents from taking military action. War is not only an act, but a state or condition, for nations are said to be at war not only when their armies are engaged, so as to be in the very act of contention, but also when, they have any matter of controversy or dispute subsisting between them which they are determined to decide by the use of force, and have declared publicly, or by their acts, their determination so to decide it. Status and Rights of Citizens During a time of war, the U.
The federal government can also impose rent control on housing. At the time the action was justified on national security grounds, because military commanders believed that California was vulnerable to Japanese spies and saboteurs. A military commander can seize or requisition a citizen's property for public use or to prevent it from falling into enemy hands. For example, it is illegal to transmit money across enemy lines. The laws of war proscribe all trading with the enemy and all other commercial relations while a state of war exists. An individual whose private property is requisitioned is entitled to fair compensation. In 1903 and 1904, President woodrow wilson sent troops into Mexico without congressional approval.
For example, in 1990, without seeking approval from Congress, President george h. Civil liberties can also be curtailed during wartime. Supreme Court, in korematsu v. By the constitution of the United States, art. In response, Congress passed the War Powers Resolution of 1973 50 U. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. Martial Rule Martial rule exists when military authorities exercise varying degrees of control over civilians in territory where, due to war or public commotion, the civil government is not able to maintain order and enforce the law.
Requisition of Private Property In times of war, Congress and the president, as commander in chief, have the power to requisition private property necessary for the war effort. What is the origin of craic? Civil war is that which is waged between two parties, citizens or members of the same state or nation. The market value of the requisitioned property is generally used as the measure of fair compensation. And it seems it need not be declared by both the belligerent powers. The war powers embrace every phase of national defense, including the mobilization and use of all resources of the nation and the protection of war materials. National wars are said to be offensive or defensive. War is offensive on the part of that government which commits the first act of violence; it is defensive on the part of that government which receives such act; but it is very difficult to say what is the first act of violence.
A contention by force; or the art of paralysing the forces of an enemy. The commander can do this, however, only in situations involving imminent and impending danger or necessity. To legalize a war it must be declared by that branch of the government entrusted by the constitution with this power. The president must, however, notify Congress within 48 hours, and the duration of time that troops can be committed in a foreign location is limited. Public war is either civil or national. The government can take steps it deems necessary for national security against enemy Enemy Intercourse The general rule is that, during a declared war, all intercourse, correspondence, and traffic between U. It can recall nationals who are abroad and subject them to penalty if they do not obey.
Infoplease knows the value of having sources you can trust. War Powers of the U. It is within the power of Congress to enact During the early months of U. Recent Examples on the Web Darren Beattie, the energetic muckraker behind Revolver News, has penned an outstanding polemic about a coming contest to define the near-term future of the Republican Party. In a national emergency, the act allows the president to dispatch troops without consulting Congress. National war is a contest between two or more independent nations carried on by authority of their respective governments.
Constitution also spells out the military powers of the president of the United States: he or she serves as commander in chief of the U. English crack was apparently introduced from Scots into Irish English via Northern Ireland Ulster in the mid-20th century and was thereafter adopted into Irish Gaelic and Irish English. Craic is an Irish Gaelic spelling that represents the English pronunciation of English crack and was then taken back into English. War Open and declared conflict between the armed forces of two or more states or nations. It is either public or private. When compensation is made, the owner is entitled to receive the reasonable value of the property. The services and production of a business organization, such as a shipping company, can properly be requisitioned.
But, the most serious infractions began in 1951, when President lyndon b. Article I, Section 8, Clause 11 of the U. The government can censor news that affects national security, such as reports of troop movements. Constitution gives Congress alone the power to declare war. . . .