Plato social contract theory. Aristolte Plato Social Contract Essay Example 2022-10-26
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Plato's social contract theory, outlined in his dialogue "The Republic," is a proposal for how society should be organized in order to achieve justice and the common good. According to Plato, the social contract is a voluntary agreement between individuals to give up some of their personal freedoms in exchange for the protection and benefits of living in a society governed by laws.
Plato's theory is based on the idea that humans are naturally selfish and desire power and wealth for their own benefit. However, Plato believed that this self-serving behavior leads to conflict and injustice within society. In order to avoid this, he proposed that individuals should willingly give up some of their personal freedoms in order to live in a just and harmonious society.
Plato argued that the best form of government is one in which the rulers are philosophers, who are individuals who have dedicated their lives to the pursuit of truth and wisdom. These philosophers would be the ones to determine the laws and policies of the society, as they are the most qualified to make decisions in the best interest of the community.
However, Plato also recognized that not everyone is capable of or interested in becoming a philosopher. Therefore, he proposed a hierarchy of classes within society, with the rulers at the top, followed by the auxiliary class (soldiers and law enforcement), and the producers (artisans and farmers). Each class would have specific duties and responsibilities within the society, and all individuals would be assigned to a class based on their abilities and interests.
Plato believed that this system would promote the common good and lead to a just society, as individuals would be placed in positions where they can contribute to the community based on their strengths and abilities. In addition, the philosopher rulers would ensure that the laws and policies of the society were fair and just, as they would be guided by the pursuit of truth and wisdom.
Overall, Plato's social contract theory is a proposal for how to create a just and harmonious society by organizing individuals into classes based on their abilities and interests, and having philosopher rulers who make decisions in the best interest of the community. While the specific details of Plato's theory may be subject to debate, his ideas continue to influence political thought and discussions about the role of the state in society.
Plato on Equality
Locke writes: As much as anyone can make use of to any advantage of life before it spoils, so much by his labor he may fix a property in; whatever is beyond this, is more than his share, and belongs to others. This is the strategy which Locke pursues, following Hobbes and others. This was a reaction to the Catholic persecution of Protestants. Locke says: It seems to me a near Contradiction to say that there are truths imprinted on the Soul, which it perceives or understands not; imprinting if it signify anything, being nothing else but the making certain Truths to be perceived. Locke distinguishes two sorts of probable propositions. Therefore all who consider justice from the point of view of the original position would agree upon the same principles of justice generated out of such a thought experiment. This makes political communities stable.
Contractarianism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
According to this view, then, political obligation is subsumed under religious obligation. Locke argues that private property does not come about by universal consent. It is important to note that this change is not meant to attach additional motives to the parties in addition to the motive of self-interest. A whale is not a fish, as it turns out, but a mammal. Others finds a desert-basis in productive contribution.
Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Greek Mythology In Ancient Greek Society 1566 Words 7 Pages We can also learn about what was viewed as immoral or of little value. The social contract then can be seen as a justification by the parties to the contract of their interaction, and of their exploitation of those who are not parties to the contract, but only if the fundamental division of in-group and out-group is accepted. Plato construes the organisation of the economy of Magnesia in such a way that the extremes of excessive wealth and deep poverty are avoided. To illustrate, if workers refuse to work under the terms of an existing contract unless the employer consents to a modification, the employer may be under duress even if the proposed modification is mutually beneficial. It is correlated with degrees of assent ranging from full assurance down to conjecture, doubt and distrust.
How Plato and Socrates Viewed the Social Contract Theory
The rank was equivalent to a Fellow at any of the other colleges, but was not permanent. Two Treatises of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration. Insistence on a representative system 8:353 is not insistence on an elected representative system. Now, with electronic communications, who needs a ring? For more information on choosing credible sources for your paper, check out. The principles that persons in the Original Position, behind the Veil of Ignorance, would choose to regulate a society at the most basic level that is, prior even to a Constitution are called by Rawls, aptly enough, the Two Principles of Justice. They are not sufficient by themselves to prevent states from lapsing back into their old habits of warring on one another.
Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. If this condition is met it facilitates the chief end of language which is communication. These include mathematical and moral ideas, and all the conventional language of religion, politics and culture. These contrast with accidental properties. Like individuals in the state of nature, then, they must be considered to be in a state of war with each other. The first qualification has to do with waste.
In one sense, if I am holding an object such as an apple, and another snatches it from my hand, I have been wronged because in taking the object from my physical possession, the other harms me because my body is affected. Another point of criticism that arises from the characterization of the parties to the contract is that they must be able to contribute to the social product of interaction, or at least to threaten to destabilize it. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. The issue in the Stag Hunt is not whether we fight or not, but whether we cooperate and gain, or each go our separate ways. This is the central function of the state.
The Social Contract and Its Impact on American Politics
Kant and Cosmopolitanism, New York: Cambridge University Press. Traditional revelation can never produce as much certainty as the contemplation of the agreement or disagreement of our own ideas. It is sometimes assumed that the state of nature is a state in which there is no government at all. There is reason to conclude that if we wish to discover social contracts that best achieve a set of interrelated normative desiderata e. A second form of acceptable resistance applies to individuals.
Locke tells us that the state of slavery is the continuation of the state of war between a lawful conqueror and a captive, in which the conqueror delays taking the life of the captive, and instead makes use of him. For example we can infer that atoms are solid and that heat is a greater rate of motion of atoms while cold is a slower motion. Freedom is not the only basis for principles underlying the state. Revolution, then, is wrong but still contributes to progress. In an election, sovereignty is passed back to the people, so there is nothing wrong with the people replacing the entire government.
Kantâ€™s Social and Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
And as by the principle of ideopragy the citizens of Magnesia are not allowed to have more than one profession, that is, as farmers on their lots, they cannot become craftsmen or traders on the markets at the same time. The very existence of a state might seem to some as a limitation of freedom, since a state possesses power to control the external freedom of individual citizens through force. The possible consent is not based upon a hypothetical vote given actual preferences but is based on a rational conception of agreement given any possible empirical information. There are always borderline cases. A major divide among contemporary social contract theories thus involves defining the justificatory problem. Other questions that divide contemporary contractarians include: What are the ideal conditions and who are the ideal contractors that will make obligatory the outcomes of the contract for actual persons? Mendus 1991: 41 So, religious persecution by the state is inappropriate. Given the pervasive influence of contract theory on social, political, and moral philosophy, then, it is not surprising that feminists should have a great deal to say about whether contract theory is adequate or appropriate from the point of view of taking women seriously.
In his capacity as the secretary of the Board of Trade Locke was the collection point for information from around the globe about trade and colonies for the English government. So, no matter what she does, I should confess. At this point, Locke needed to make a decision. They will decide the content of this constitution by establishing a social contract. So, government gets established, through a contract, which purports to guarantee equality and protection for all, even though its true purpose is to fossilize the very inequalities that private property has produced.