Occupational segregation uk. Occupational sex segregation in the UK 1979 2022-10-15
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Occupational segregation refers to the unequal distribution of certain groups of people across different occupations or industries. In the United Kingdom (UK), there has been a longstanding issue of occupational segregation, particularly along gender lines. Women have historically been concentrated in certain occupations, while men have been overrepresented in others. This segregation has had significant implications for women's career advancement and pay, as well as the overall gender balance in the labor market.
One key factor contributing to occupational segregation in the UK is the gender pay gap, which refers to the difference in median hourly earnings between men and women. In 2020, the gender pay gap in the UK was 16.9%, meaning that on average, women earned 83.1 pence for every pound earned by men. This pay gap is largely due to the concentration of women in lower-paying occupations, such as administrative and secretarial roles, and the overrepresentation of men in higher-paying occupations, such as engineering and management.
Occupational segregation also persists along racial and ethnic lines in the UK. Black, Asian, and minority ethnic (BAME) workers are often underrepresented in certain sectors, such as finance and technology, and overrepresented in others, such as retail and service industries. This segregation can lead to BAME workers facing barriers to career advancement and lower pay.
There have been efforts to address occupational segregation in the UK, including initiatives to promote diversity and inclusion in the workplace and efforts to provide education and training opportunities for underrepresented groups. However, significant challenges remain in combating segregation and promoting equal opportunities in the labor market.
One potential solution to addressing occupational segregation is to implement policies that aim to promote diversity and inclusion in the workplace. This can include targeted recruitment and training programs for underrepresented groups, as well as policies that aim to address the pay gap and ensure equal pay for equal work.
Another approach is to provide education and training opportunities for those in underrepresented groups, such as through apprenticeships and vocational training programs. These initiatives can help to build the skills and knowledge needed to enter certain industries and occupations, and can also help to increase the overall diversity of the workforce.
In conclusion, occupational segregation is a persistent issue in the UK, particularly along gender and racial lines. While efforts have been made to address this segregation and promote equal opportunities in the labor market, significant challenges remain. By implementing policies that promote diversity and inclusion, and providing education and training opportunities for underrepresented groups, the UK can work towards a more equitable and diverse labor market.
However, whilst many companies continue to operate within these male confines there have been an increasing number of women in management roles within recent years breaking the inequality traditions in status. When designing policy it is becoming ever more important to offer individualism and flexibility as opposed to static terms and conditions. Despite their great value to comprehend the cause of occupational segregation by sex, all of these theories are flawed to same degree and neither should be considered separately. Occupational Gender Segregation In British Labour Market Sociology Essay. To better understand these issues me and my colleagues from the University of Toronto conducted a study into the subject. Therefore gender changes and opinions within society have been demonstrated resulting in the counter argument for the gender nurturing social arguments demonstrated earlier. Once the stereotype incongruence is identified, one can highlight different aspects warmth or competence of the profession to appeal to more diverse demographic groups.
This would indicate that it is not viable to apply the same theory to all women as there are differing personal choices within these statistics which can not be quantified. The evidence England has put forward indicates that professions with a high rate of women do not necessary carry lower penalties for short-term breaks from work than professions with lower rate of women England, 1982, p. Meanwhile men, who think that IT is their dominant area of expertise, resolutely show their aggressiveness and ambitions when competing for the positions they want. Women pay more attention to the emotional education, whereas men are more concerned about shaping their logical thinking abilities. Some scholars, such as Haveman and Beresford, therefore argue that any policies aimed at reducing occupational inequality must focus on culture changes. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. Teaching, for example, at least in recent generations, is traditionally a female-dominated profession.
Companies can make use of this strategy at all stages of recruitment, selection, and performance management. Children are manipulated by social norms at a young age to reinforce gender differences, for example a girl wears pink and a boy wears blue, a girl is given a doll or a tea set and a boy receives a car or a football. The neo-classical theories arguments applied alone offers just limited explanation for occupational sex segregation. Copy to Clipboard Reference Copied to Clipboard. However there is the suggestion that in the 1970s this was not a forced choice for women but one entered into willingly, although the family remained the primary concern there was also increasing financial pressures as social movements changed. However it would appear these freedoms come with painful choices to be made; in the cold light of day reality will push to suggest it is not possible to have it all.
Due to patriarchal system, women joining labour market are affected by their free house work; their incomes are perceived as extra money added to a primary incomes of their husbands. Firstly this essay will look at some statistics surrounding women in the employment. It is said that women are more likely to be late or absent at work than men, possibly due to home responsibilities Kirton and Greene, 2005, p. Soo Min Toh is a Professorial Fellow at the University of Edinburgh Business School and Associate Professor of Organisational Behaviour and HR Management at the University of Toronto. However, women still face barriers to enter those occupations Anker, 1997, p.
Overcoming Occupational Stereotypes and Segregation
This might explain why women are solely accountable for most of the house activities and childcare Anker, 1997, p. Kirton and Greene 2001 p46 appear to agree, women have to make a choice, they place women at a disadvantage in the workplace due to less experience, lack of training and education compared to male counterparts. Labour Market Statistics 2010 highlights that 42. Based on these statistical data, we can obviously find that there are respectively dominant fields for men and women. Occupational segregation is one of the main causes of the gender pay gap. This concept is concerned with a social situation where women are in subordinate position and are dominated, exploited, and undermined by powerful men Bender L.
We developed a comprehensive classification of occupational stereotypes by applying a framework, used in the past to measure stereotypes of social groups, onto the perception of occupations. For those that do not achieve a level of seniority occupations tend to be limited to clerical or secretarial roles and are primarily held as part time Rose, E 2004 p557. Secondly, occupational segregation, to some degree, should be traced back to the major decision people made in their college years. Thus, the location of women in female-dominated occupations which are lower-status and lower pay is the result of "severe day-to-day time constraints" rather than a conscious and long-term choice made that would be able to maximize pay and prestige. Human resource steering can occur when this role is used to turn women and racial minorities to jobs with lower salaries. Women, Gender, and Work: What is Equality and How Do We Get There?.
An introduction of house appliances such as washing machines, cookers and microwaves has decreased significantly the time required to perform certain house activities in recent decades Bowden and Offer, 1994, p. Therefore, female workers are often regarded by employers as less committed and less professional Epstein et al. It may be the changing social climates of the late 20 th and early 21 st Centuries have led to this change in female presence. The essay will examined the neo-classical economic theories of human capital and rational choice. For example: You may have 10 men who are nurses out of 600 total men.
. Sly et al 1998 relate education and occupational qualifications as key to the success of women with the workplace. Some women self-select out of higher status positions, choosing instead to have more time to spend at home and with their families. Get Help With Your Essay If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! According to Sarah Damaske, this choice is often made because high status positions do not allow time for the heavy domestic workload that many women expect to take on due to the gendered division of labor in the home. They may hire people based on their personal preference and past experiences. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Toys and play are also organised along rigid gender lines, with 'boys' toys' representing a wide range of active and exciting options including diggers, action heroes and construction sets; while girls' options remain focused around caring roles and 'beauty'.