Obesity and genetics essay. Role of Genetics in Obesity 2022-10-15
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Obesity is a major health concern that affects millions of people around the world. While there are many factors that contribute to obesity, such as diet, lifestyle, and environmental factors, there is also evidence to suggest that genetics plays a role in the development of this condition.
Obesity is defined as having an excess amount of body fat, and is typically measured using the body mass index (BMI), which is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. A BMI of 30 or above is considered obese, while a BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight.
There are several genetic factors that can contribute to obesity. For example, some people are born with a genetic predisposition to store fat more easily than others. This can make it more difficult for them to maintain a healthy weight, even if they follow a healthy diet and exercise regularly.
There are also specific genetic mutations that have been linked to obesity. One such mutation is in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene, which has been shown to increase the risk of obesity. Other genetic mutations, such as those in the MC4R (melanocortin 4 receptor) gene, have been linked to an increased risk of obesity as well.
However, it is important to note that genetics is only one factor in the development of obesity. Environmental and lifestyle factors, such as diet and physical activity, also play a significant role. For example, people who eat a diet high in calories and unhealthy fats and do not get enough physical activity are more likely to gain weight and become obese.
There are several ways that genetics can influence obesity, but it is important to remember that genetics is just one piece of the puzzle. A healthy diet and regular exercise are key to maintaining a healthy weight and reducing the risk of obesity. While genetics may make it more difficult for some people to maintain a healthy weight, it is still possible to achieve and maintain a healthy weight through lifestyle changes and proper management.
Free Essay: genetics of obesity
Although most genes have been first identified for extreme forms of obesity, a locus harbouring ADCY3 was first identified in GWAS for common obesity ADCY3 was subsequently confirmed as having a role in extreme obesity ADCY3 encodes an adenylate cyclase that catalyses the synthesis of cAMP, an important second messenger in signalling pathways. . This paper specifically identifies various genetic factors which contribute to obesity and provides recommendations for addressing the epidemic. Through a series of active enzymatic reaction steps, the pro-opiomelanocortin POMC plays an initial role in the production of corticotrophin ACTH , melanocyte-stimulating hormones MSH and endorphin Millinvgton, 2007, p. Those services that are aligned with them tend to differ between areas. However, such findings also provide evidence that supports the complicity of identification of the specific causes of obesity. S has further than doubled ever since the year 1976 and at present more than 15%.
It includes stroke, hypertension, gall bladder disease, coronary heart disease and even cancers like breast cancer, prostate cancer, endometrial cancer and colon cancer. The representatives of the general public tend to believe that obesity is caused by the calorie-rich food and beverages. Obesity in children is a very serious problem and should not be taken lightly. Thus, it is believed that genetic testing is not appropriate for common obesity. Studies have shown obese children have an exceptionally hard time losing weight and following through with lifestyle changes in adulthood when their health, and even their lives, may depend on them all the more reason why parents should encourage their children to remain physically active throughout their childhood. Michelle Obama Announces Let 's Move Campaign 's Childhood Obesity Guidelines. According to the CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention approximately 17% or 12.
Relation Between Obesity And Genetics Essay Example
For example, the FTO locus, which was identified more than a decade ago and harbours six genes, is the most extensively studied GWAS-identified obesity locus Fig. For example, if a child over eats and spends most of the time indoors watching television and playing computer games then the child is likely to be overweight. Regardless of the fact that polygenic diseases and other complex traits are usually discussed in this framework, quantitative obesity sub-phenotypes can be considered in order to determine heritability of some characteristics. Clegg, 2012 The table above shows maintaining a healthy body weight is achieved by balancing energy intake with energy used. In another observation, the carriers of the two copies of the FTO gene weigh even more than those with a single copy of the gene. Accessed on 30 th April from. Obesity Society There are many causes for obesity including inactivity, unhealthy diet and eating habits, genetics, hormonal changes, certain medications, and other medical Childhood Obesity: A Genetic Analysis With an optimal, balanced diet, children grow to their fullest genetic potential.
We also explore how the ubiquity of whole-exome sequencing WES and genome sequencing has begun to blur the line that used to demarcate the monogenic causes of obesity from common polygenic obesity. Using genetic information maintained in databases, researchers have been able to identify critical molecular pathways responsible for obesity which are specifically brought by the interaction of the environmental factors and the genetic factors Gohlke et al, 2009, p. They are not interested in the role of genetics and tend to mention its role only in a perfunctory manner, pointing out other causes as more severe and complicated ones. For the more widespread types of obesity, it is projected dividing them into those with a strong hereditary predisposition and those with a minor genetic vulnerability. Maffeis et al 1998 found that obesity in parents was the strongest predictor of childhood obesity, regardless of diet or level of activity.
Obesity And Genetics Does Genetics Play A Part Term Paper
However, human obesity has also essential genetic associates that work together with significant environmental factors although an obesogenic environment is characteristically essential for its phenotypic appearance Lustig, 203. Pro-opiomelanocortin POMC Feeding in humans follows habitually trained rhythms which are regulated by the hypothalamus. CHILDHOOD 3 Are you obese? In the majority of cases, governments cooperate with healthcare systems in order to develop those guidelines and policies that can be used to prevent and manage obesity. Narrow blood vessels cause the blood pressures to rise. BMI measures height, weight, waist circumference and skinfold to determine the amount of fat a person is storing. I chose this topic because my grandchildren are both overweight as are most of their fraternal relatives. Thus, genetic insight for obesity cannot be denied.
Chronic illnesses like diabetes, heart diseases and relate to obesity in terms of causes and complications. Obesity may ascend as a consequence of energy intake that has increased, decreased energy outflow or increased dividing of nutrients into fat, either on its own or in mixture. Parents are the ones that are allowing their child to eat whatever they want and not be physically active. Within it, they are expected to focus on those genes that are discussed in the framework of monogenic obesity. So it is wiser to exercise daily and maintain a healthy lifestyle rather than being the victim of obesity.
The understanding of the role of PCSK1 gene in the control in insulin and consequent glucose synthesis is a breakthrough in the ongoing research in the search of the appropriate weight management measures. There is a lot of body fat due to being overweight. If you can succeed in doing so, it will give you the perfect head-start into your journey of getting in shape and bidding goodbye to obesity. For instance small sample size, zygosity needs to be confirmed and again the role of environmental factors cannot be ignored. Early recognition of excessive weight gain can help combat obesity in the future. The calories from food and drink have a direct effect on the weight gain.
Obesity simply means excessive fat depositing into our body including the arteries. Hormonal Disorder: There are several hormonal changes which are known to be direct causes of obesity. Deposition of fats in the heart and blood vessels result in heart diseases. They should help patients to lose and manage their weight. Obesity can be prevented so that individuals do not end up having serious complications and health problems. Findings proposed that over 140 locations across the genome were related to various obesity trait Locke, 2015. Foods that are rich in nutrients, with no added sugars, will help balance the blood sugar level.