Motivation and emotion journal. Motivation and Emotion 2022-11-03
Motivation and emotion journal
Infant observation is a valuable tool for understanding the development and behavior of young children. By closely observing infants, researchers and caregivers can learn about their physical, cognitive, and social-emotional development, as well as their unique personalities and temperaments.
To conduct an infant observation, a researcher or caregiver typically spends a set amount of time observing the infant in their natural environment, such as their home or a childcare center. The observer may take notes on the infant's behavior, interactions with others, and overall development. They may also use specific tools or techniques, such as coding systems or developmental assessments, to gather more detailed information.
There are several benefits to conducting infant observations. First and foremost, they provide a rich source of information about infant development and behavior. This can be particularly useful for identifying any developmental delays or concerns, as well as for identifying areas of strength and potential. In addition, infant observations can help caregivers better understand and respond to the needs of individual infants, allowing them to provide more personalized and effective care.
There are also several ethical considerations to keep in mind when conducting infant observations. It is important to obtain the informed consent of the infant's parents or guardians before beginning an observation, and to ensure that the observation does not interfere with the infant's well-being or cause any distress. In addition, the observer should take care to protect the confidentiality of the infant and their family, and to use the information gathered only for research or educational purposes.
Overall, infant observation is a powerful tool for understanding the complex and fascinating process of child development. By carefully observing and documenting the behavior of young children, researchers and caregivers can gain valuable insights into their development and better meet their needs.
Cognition and Emotion
This leads to an aversion to the odor cue that suggests the rats learned to fear the odor cue. According to this view, physiological arousal and emotional experience occur simultaneously, yet independently Lang, 1994. However, as discussed later in the chapter, the exact order in which the components occur is not clear, and some parts may happen at the same time. However, your brain predicting a churning stomach while you were waiting for medical test results could lead your brain to construct worry. What level leads to the best performance? In fact, these books were banned in some countries.
Bulimia is associated with many adverse health consequences that can include kidney failure, heart failure, and tooth decay. If your level is very low, such as boredom and apathy, your performance will likely suffer. So, when you see the venomous snake, you feel fear at exactly the same time that your body mounts its fight or flight response. The Schachter-Singer two-factor theory of emotion is another variation on theories of emotions that takes into account both physiological arousal and the emotional experience. We also use the tone of our voices, various behaviors, and body language to communicate information about our emotional states.
Emotion and Motivation
In other words, physiological arousal is interpreted in context to produce the emotional experience. For one, physical reinforcement such as money and verbal reinforcement such as praise may affect an individual in very different ways. In this chapter, we will explore issues relating to both motivation and emotion. . According to Maslow 1943 , one must satisfy lower-level needs before addressing those needs that occur higher in the pyramid. The various hunger and satiety signals that are involved in the regulation of eating are integrated in the brain. Next, we will consider both eating and having sex as examples of motivated behaviors.
Motivation and Emotion
This chapter will close with a discussion of emotion. The first form of abusive treatment had an insufficient bedding condition. While some people are very successful with these approaches, many struggle to lose excess weight. Even people who vary slightly from traditional norms can be the target of discrimination and sometimes even violence. In order for children to be assigned this diagnostic category, they must verbalize their desire to become the other gender. So what is the optimal level of arousal? In addition to biological motives, motivations can be intrinsic arising from internal factors or extrinsic arising from external factors Figure 10.
If you think something is positive, you will have more positive emotions about it than if your appraisal was negative, and the opposite is true. Performance is maximized at the optimal level of arousal, and it tapers off during under- and overarousal. Other research has more recently addressed that late in life, Maslow proposed a self-transcendence level above self-actualization—to represent striving for meaning and purpose beyond the concerns of oneself Koltko-Rivera, 2006. However, in some cultures, there are additional gender variants resulting in more than two gender categories. Resolution is the relatively rapid return to an unaroused state accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure and muscular relaxation.
When our blood glucose levels drop, the pancreas and liver generate a number of chemical signals that induce hunger Konturek et al. In contrast, the amygdala and nucleus accumbens are involved in motivation for sexual behavior, but they do not affect the ability to engage in it. The second form of abusive treatment had an associative learning task that involved pairing odors and an electrical stimulus in the absence of the mother, as described above. The control center directs effectors which may be other neurons to correct any imbalance detected by the control center. Alternatively, does being happy make you smile? Interestingly, when the mother was present, the rats actually showed a preference for the odor cue despite its association with an electrical shock. In reality, our motivations are often a mix of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, but the nature of the mix of these factors might change over time often in ways that seem counter-intuitive.
Kinsey scale of sexual responses, indicating degrees of sexual orientation. This low blood sugar will induce a physiological need and a corresponding drive state i. This internalization can be enhanced if the evaluative aspects of the classroom are de-emphasized and if students feel that they exercise some control over the learning environment. Baking has become work in a way that changes her motivation to do it Figure 10. Generally, prevalence rates are considerably lower for men Smink et al. It represents what researchers have learned from the psychological study of emotion.
In men, the duration of the refractory period can vary dramatically from individual to individual with some refractory periods as short as several minutes and others as long as a day. Body language is the expression of emotion in terms of body position or movement. Typically, the word emotion indicates a subjective, affective state that is relatively intense and that occurs in response to something we experience Mood, on the other hand, refers to a prolonged, less intense, affective state that does not occur in response to something we experience. Strong emotional responses are associated with strong physiological arousal, which caused some theorists to suggest that the signs of physiological arousal, including increased heart rate, respiration rate, and sweating, might be used to determine whether someone is telling the truth or not. The mother rat had insufficient bedding material in her cage to build a proper nest that resulted in her spending more time away from her pups trying to construct a nest and less time nursing her pups. The Kinsey Institute has continued as a research site of important psychological studies for decades. There was, however, considerable controversy among James and his contemporaries over the exact definition of instinct.