Microbial biotransformation of steroids. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION OF STEROIDS: A FOCUS ON TYPES AND TECHNIQUES 2022-11-08
Microbial biotransformation of steroids
Microbial biotransformation refers to the process by which microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and yeast, convert naturally occurring or synthetic compounds into new forms through their metabolic activities. This process plays a significant role in the synthesis and degradation of various compounds in the environment, including steroids.
Steroids are a class of lipids that are characterized by a specific chemical structure comprising four rings of carbon atoms. They are produced by a wide range of organisms, including animals, plants, and fungi, and play important roles in various physiological processes. Some examples of steroids include cholesterol, sex hormones (such as testosterone and estrogen), and corticosteroids (such as cortisol).
Microbial biotransformation of steroids can result in the synthesis of new steroids or the degradation of existing ones. For instance, bacteria and fungi can convert cholesterol, a type of steroid found in animal cells, into other steroids such as bile acids and vitamin D. On the other hand, microorganisms can also break down steroids through degradation processes, such as hydroxylation, oxidation, and reduction.
One important aspect of microbial biotransformation of steroids is that it can occur both in the laboratory and in natural environments. In the laboratory, microorganisms can be used to synthesize specific steroids for various purposes, such as the production of pharmaceutical drugs or the synthesis of fragrances. On the other hand, microbial biotransformation of steroids also occurs naturally in the environment, where microorganisms play a vital role in the cycling and transformation of these compounds.
In conclusion, microbial biotransformation of steroids is a complex process that involves the conversion of these compounds through the metabolic activities of microorganisms. It can result in the synthesis of new steroids or the degradation of existing ones, and can occur both in the laboratory and in natural environments. The importance of this process lies in its role in the synthesis and degradation of steroids, which are involved in various physiological processes and have various applications in various fields.
Biotransformation of Steroids Using Different Microorganisms
This enzyme was shown to possess flavin adenine dinucleotide FAD as a prosthetic group and was also found to be dependent on NADPH and oxygen. Certain acetic acid bacteria can convert glycerol to dihydroxyacetone through the process of biotransformation. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. Schaaaf O, Dettner K. Nowadays, biohydroxylations in C-11α, 11β, 15α, and 16α are industrially carried out via a microbial hydroxylation with good yields and enantiomeric excess ee. The new antibiotics will have 4-methylproline in place of proline and these actinomycins are more efficient in their function.
Biotransformation of steroids by entomopathogenic strains of Isaria farinosa
Biotransformation products of testosterone 12. Brezezowska E, Dmochowska-Gladysz J, Kolek T. Microbial transformation of steroids: Contribution to 14α-hidroxilations. Biotransformation products of exemestane 211. The knowledge of the stereochemistry of steroid molecules is highly significant in understanding its biotransformation reactions which is the basis of this study. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. From the transformation of 211 using Macrophomina phaseolina, 16β,17β-dihydroxy-6-methylene-androsta-1,4-diene-3-one 212 , 17β-hydroxy-6-methylene-androsta-1,4-diene-3,16-dione 213 , and 17β-hydroxy-6-methylene-androsta-1,4-diene-3-one 214 were obtained, while by using Fusarium lini, the only product obtained was 11α-hydroxy-6-methylene-androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione 215 Figure 28.
Microbiological Transformation of Steroids
It leads to the production of aldehydes or carboxylic acids from primary alcohol and ketones from secondary alcohol. The other two related to progesterone hormones are estrogen and testosterone. With the biotransformation of 11 and 105 using different strains of the fungus, C. Conclusions The biotransformation processes of different steroid compounds described in this review, although not exhaustive, aim to highlight the importance of biotransformation through different microorganisms, as a useful chemical-biological tool for obtaining novel derivatives for research purpose and as industrial applications. ICP-MS analysis of purified MroUPO confirmed the presence of magnesium supposedly stabilizing the porphyrin ring system.
Steroid Biotransformation (With Diagram)
Future perspectives The industrial production of androstenedione is challenging and economically important. Microbial hydroxylation of 13β-ethyl-4-gonene-3, 17-dione. Therefore, the microbial transformation of the racemic mixture and the d-enantiomer of 56 using different Cunninghamella species gave poor yields and poor resolutions, which were obtained for the hydroxylation reaction Figure 6. Steroids are very important in pharmaceutical industry. Kolet SP, Niloferjahan S, Haldar S, Gonnade R, Thulasiram HV. Conclusions As per the available literature, there are number of strategies to increase the product yield.
MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION OF STEROIDS: A FOCUS ON TYPES AND TECHNIQUES
Biocatalyst mediated production of 6β,11α-dihydroxy derivatives of 4-ene-3-one steroids. All products were found to be non-toxic to 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. Journal of Basic Microbiology. Inactivation and augmentation of the primary 3-ketosteroid-Δ1-dehydrogenase in Mycobacterium neoaurum NwIB-01: Biotransformation of soybean phytosterols to 4-androstene-3, 17-dione or 1, 4-androstadiene-3, 17-dione. This fungus demonstrated an unusual ring- A opening following incubation of the steroid 17β-acetoxy-5α-androstan-3-one, and thus generating 4-hydroxy-3,4-seco-pregn-20-one-3-oic acid. Biochemistry and Function of Sterols.
(PDF) MICROALGAL BIOTRANSFORMATION OF STEROIDS1
Applications of microbial cytochrome P450 enzymes in biotechnology and synthetic biology. . Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. Production of androgens by microbial transformation of progesterone in vitro: A model for androgen production in rivers receiving paper mill effluent. Cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP68J5 from filamentous fungus Aspergillus ochraceus is industrially used for selective C11α-hydroxylation of canrenone and progesterone. Yet, the extent to which institutional case mix influences hospital profiling remains unexplored. Tertiary alcohols are resistant to oxidation because it is impossible to remove a hydrogen ion or add an oxygen atom to the compound without breaking the C-C bond.
Microbial Biotransformation for the Production of Steroid Medicament
Analytical TLC was carried out on silica gel G Merck. The NMR spectra were recorded on a DRX 500 MHz Bruker spectrometer and measured in CDCl 3. This property is a key element in the steroid precursor production and, therefore can be exploited to make AD production a commercially viable process. Biotransformation of oral contraceptive ethynodiol diacetate with microbial and plant cell cultures. Biotransformation of testosterone and pregnenolone catalyzed by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. Enzymes can catalyse a wide spectrum of reactions like hydroxylation in inactivated positions. Biotransformation products of hydrocortisone 173.
Microbial Transformation of Steroids, Sample of Essays
Hu SH, Tian XF, Han GD. For example, Jekkel etal. Biotransformation of dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA by environmental strains of filamentous fungi. We sought to evaluate whether higher readmission rates in vascular surgery are a reflection of worse performance or of treating sicker patients. It was also identified to be the first thermophilic fungus to cleave the side- chain of progesterone. Microbial metabolites were purified chromatographically and identified on the basis of their spectral data as 17β-hydroxyandrost-1,4-dien-3-one II , 14α-hydroxyandrost-1,4-dien-3,17-dione III , 15α-hydroxyandrost-1,4-dien-3,17-dione IV , 15α,17β-dihydroxyandrost-1,4-dien-3-one V , 14α,17β-dihydroxyandrost-1,4-dien-3-one VI , and 6β,17β-dihydroxyandrost-1,4-dien-3-one VII. Biotransformation products of mesterelone 149.