Kohlberg 1984. Kohlberg L 1984 Essays on moral development Vol 2 The psychology of moral 2022-11-02
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Lawrence Kohlberg was a psychologist who developed a theory of moral development in 1984. His theory proposed that individuals go through six stages of moral development, each characterized by a distinct way of thinking about moral dilemmas.
Kohlberg's theory was based on the work of Jean Piaget, who had previously proposed a theory of cognitive development. Kohlberg expanded upon this work by focusing specifically on moral reasoning and the development of moral judgments.
According to Kohlberg, the first three stages of moral development are considered "pre-conventional." These stages are characterized by a focus on self-interest and a limited understanding of social norms and rules. At the first stage, individuals make moral judgments based on the consequences of their actions for themselves. At the second stage, they begin to consider the expectations and rules of society, but they still prioritize their own needs and desires.
The fourth and fifth stages, known as the "conventional" stages, involve a greater awareness of social norms and a desire to conform to them. At these stages, individuals make moral judgments based on the expectations of authority figures and the laws and rules of society.
Finally, at the sixth stage, individuals begin to think about moral dilemmas in a more abstract and universal way. They consider the principles and values that underlie social norms and laws, and they make moral judgments based on these principles rather than on the expectations of authority figures or the consequences for themselves.
Kohlberg's theory has been influential in the field of psychology and has been used to understand and explain differences in moral reasoning among individuals. However, it has also been criticized for its focus on Western, individualistic values and for its lack of attention to the role of emotions in moral decision making.
Despite these criticisms, Kohlberg's theory remains an important contribution to our understanding of moral development and the ways in which individuals think about moral dilemmas.
The Psychology of Moral Development: The Nature and Validity of Moral Stages
At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments. At this age, children's decisions are primarily shaped by the expectations of adults and the consequences of breaking the rules. Adulthood is a time of moral stability rather than moral development. Find out more about the Close Conflicting interests help Please list any fees and grants from, employment by, consultancy for, shared ownership in or any close relationship with, at any time over the preceding 36 months, any organisation whose interests may be affected by the publication of the response. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Paul was disappointed and decided to go to the concert anyway.
Kohlberg proved the above point empirically. Some older children, adolescents, and adults use this reasoning. Adolescent decision making: The devel- opment of competence. While females do show a tendency to make more care-based judgments than males, this occurs primarily for personal moral dilemmas they have experienced themselves, and does not appear for other types of questions, including the ones used originally by Kohlberg. If laws are not just, a person may suggest that there is a moral obligation not to obey the law.
In stage three, the person wants to please others. Not everyone achieves all the stages. The man should obey the law because stealing is a crime. The dilemmas are artificial i. When they reach this final stage, their sense of morality is based on an internal set of abstract ethical principles that supersede the laws and norms of society. Stage 6: Moral behavior is based on self-chosen ethical principles.
Notice that both of these levels are about causes and effects - if I do this, then you will do that. Does moral judgment match moral behavior? Older children, adolescents, and most adults Conventional morality Stage 3: Focus is on how situational outcomes impact others and wanting to please and be accepted. Factors such as compassion, caring, and other interpersonal feelings may play an important part in moral reasoning. Pre-Conventional Morality Pre-conventional morality usually occurs during middle childhood between the ages of 6 and 10. Kohlberg argued that stage 5 and stage 6 are not the new stages developed in adulthood. Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood. But the pharmacist refused to sell it for any less or to accept partial payments.
Kohlberg L 1984 Essays on moral development Vol 2 The psychology of moral
Teachers and students can work together to explore the new moral notions and moral orientations through equal and free discussions. Should he have done that? It has significantly impacted education. Essays on moral development. A social system that stresses the responsibilities of relationships as well as social order is seen as desirable and must, therefore, influence our view of what is right and wrong. As a result, the society and education can help develop it by all means. However, Gilligan 1977 suggests that the principle of caring for others is equally important.
Right or wrong, both decisions were based on what would physically happen to the man as a result of the act. Kurtines and Jacob L. The man should steal the drug because life is more important than property. It also suggests effective strategies to improve college moral education in China, i. Individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice.
Therefore, answers relate to the approval of others. Mens' morality is based on abstract principles of law and justice, while womens' is based on principles of compassion and care. How Kohlberg Developed His Theory Kohlberg based his theory on a series of moral dilemmas presented to his study subjects. In the fifth stage, laws are recognized as social contracts. Notice that such thinking is the kind Supreme Court justices do all day when deliberating whether a law is moral or ethical, which requires being able to think abstractly. Are there distinct stages of moral development? Pleasing others becomes more important than simply following rules.
The Psychology of Moral Development: The Nature and Validity of Moral Stages. By Lawrence Kohlberg. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1984. xxxvi + 729 pages. $34.95.
Moral development is the process by which people develop the distinction between right and wrong morality and engage in reasoning between the two moral reasoning. Edited by William M. Should Heinz have stolen the drug? Level 2 - Conventional morality Conventional morality is the second stage of moral development, and is characterized by an acceptance of social rules concerning right and wrong. His analysis of their answers helped develop Kohlberg's theory. The Pre-Conventional Level : At the first level of moral development, the pre-conventional level, children judge morality largely in terms of consequences. The Post-Conventional Level : Finally, in adolescence or early adulthood many, though by no means all, individuals enter a third level known as the post-conventional level, or principled level.
For example, the man should break into the store because, even if it is against the law, the wife needs the drug and her life is more important than the consequences the man might face for breaking the law. The person will be prepared to act to defend these principles even if it means going against the rest of society in the process and having to pay the consequences of disapproval and or imprisonment. Harvard University Press; 2016. In a different voice: Women's conceptions of self and of morality. Overemphasis on Justice One primary critique of Kohlberg's theory is that it overemphasizes justice and focuses little on compassion and care for others.