Kerala model of development ppt. The Kerala Model Of Development Economics Essay 2022-11-04
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The Kerala Model of Development is a term used to describe the socio-economic development of the Indian state of Kerala. It is characterized by a high level of social development and relatively low levels of economic development, and has been the subject of much study and debate among economists and policymakers.
One of the key features of the Kerala Model of Development is the high level of social development that has been achieved in the state. Kerala has consistently ranked at the top of various social indicators, such as literacy rates, life expectancy, and infant mortality rates, among other things. This has been achieved through a strong focus on education and healthcare, as well as the implementation of various social welfare programs.
Another key feature of the Kerala Model of Development is the relatively low levels of economic development that have been achieved in the state. While Kerala has a relatively high per capita income, it lags behind other states in terms of industrialization and economic growth. This has led some economists to argue that the Kerala Model of Development is not sustainable in the long term, as it relies heavily on remittances from Keralites working abroad and does not adequately invest in economic development.
There are several factors that have contributed to the Kerala Model of Development. One of the main factors is the state's strong focus on education and healthcare, which has helped to improve social indicators and reduce poverty. Additionally, the state's political leadership has played a significant role in implementing social welfare programs and promoting social development.
Despite its successes, the Kerala Model of Development has also faced criticism and challenges. Some critics argue that it is not sustainable in the long term, as it relies heavily on external sources of income and does not adequately invest in economic development. Others argue that it is not replicable in other states due to its unique cultural and historical context.
Overall, the Kerala Model of Development is a complex and multifaceted model of socio-economic development that has achieved impressive results in terms of social indicators, but has also faced challenges and criticism. It is an important case study for policymakers and economists seeking to understand the potential and limitations of alternative development models.
The Achievements and Challenges of the Kerala 'Model'
It headed seven coalition state governments, besides its own brief interlude of Communist rule, implementing land reforms and decentralization measures long before other states. As economic liberalization takes place in other states of India and tariffs are being lowered, as well as subsidized economy ended by turning to free-market enterprise and wooing multinational industries Kerala seems to be less attractive for potential investors. Since then, voluntary land reforms have been initiated by the state. More than 94 percent of the rural population has access to primary schools within a distance of one kilometre, while 98 per cent of population has got one school within a distance of two kilometres. Secondly, a substantial number of farming families have non-agricultural sources of income. The Kerala model of social development is unique in several respects. Besides, it highlights the devolution of power in the country and how the governmental reforms of this state have set a new meaning of power distribution for the effective development of a state.
Focus was more on redistribution rather than income growth. With the foundation it has built in public education and public health, Kerala was and continues to be much better prepared than the rest of the country to take advantage of the opportunities offered by globalisation and new technologies. When we send our surveyors out, people are embarrassed to say if they have more than two kids. Kerala model of development: Land Reforms The Kerala model of development refers to all the economic practices adopted by Kerala. The Public Affairs Index is a scientific, data-based framework that measures and ranks the quality of governance of states and Union Territories based on 3 dimensions of sustainable development- Equity, Growth and Sustainability. The program was expected to be a key to reduction of production costs and raise efficiency of paddy cultivation.
The size of the working age population in Kerala is set to decline between now and 2031—almost two decades before such a decline is to be registered at the national level. In Kerala and West Bengal, the agrarian structure went under a radical restructuring to give the tenants their land rights. As a percentage of the State Domestic Product SDP remittances constituted, on an average, around 11 percent since early eighties to the early nineties till the end of the fixed exchange rate system. An agenda for the future In response to the emerging challenges, Kerala has taken steps to deepen the gains of social development and to broaden their reach. The female literacy in Kerala at 86 per cent is far above the all-India rate of 39 percent, and as high as in many developed countries.
The share of people who have to travel for more than half a kilometre for drinking water is just 1. It had impact on family transition, the number of children in a household. Kerala's Communist Party transformed itself into a powerful social democratic force, and adapted to India's parliamentary democratic framework. To clearly understand the land reforms definition, we will discuss more Kerala model development: Land Reforms. It is estimates that the infant mortality rate in 1999 was 17 per thousand against an Indian average of 79 per thousand, and around half of in China, and lowers than that in far richer countries such as Argentina.
A study conducted by INCLEN and ICRW on domestic violence in Kerala found that as high as 62. In the urban areas, more than 40 percent of the educated women were unemployed B. Higher skills and qualifications, or even escalation of qualifications, are see as a securing future job. Following this, in 1958, the agrarian relations Bill was passed along with some minor amendments. The public sector employment showed only marginal increase during the above period 1.
These transfers may include compensation as well. Strong social development by itself does not lead to high economic growth. Source: Handbook of Statistics on State Government Finances: A Study of State Budgets, Reserve Bank of India, various issues and Economic Review, Government of Kerala, various years. The possibility of success of this growth depends on the kinds of jobs one creates. The possibilities for knowledge-led economic growth in the state were outlined in the " An important agent of knowledge-driven economic growth in Kerala will be its universities and other academic and research institutions.
Birth control is wildly accessible. Definitely Karela has been transforming itself from extremely poor state, ridden with caste and class conflicts and burdened by high birth, infant-mortality, and population grow rates into social- democratic state with low birth, and high leve of litratucy. While the other states in India refashioning itself in the image of western lifestyle and economy, Kerala remains a communist state with very strong influence of trade unions, and more or less centralize politics. On the other hand, despite large scale unemployment particularly among the educated population, the private demand for higher education has been increasing. Instead Karalla government should spend more on investment at economy, agriculture, and industrialisation. Of course, education is free in government schools run directly by the government and government-aided schools across the state.
Between 2000 and 2001 Kerala had 9,8 banks per 100-sq km of area, much above all India 2. It is estimates that in 2003 unemployment were as high as 25 percent K. Also work seekers in 80 percent had qualifications of SSLC and above. The ripple effects caused by the heavy spending on education and health spread wide and lasted long, especially in rural areas. Second, gender-based disparities continue to exist in Kerala at the workplace, as they do within families and in society at large Eapen and Kodoth 2002. The annual remittances from the emigrants increased from Rs.