Good research paper examples. Perfect Resources and Capabilities Analysis Essay Samples to Improve Your Studies 2022-10-12
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The pigeonhole principle, also known as the "boxes and pigeons" principle, is a simple but powerful concept in mathematics that states that if there are more objects than available spaces (or "pigeonholes"), then at least one space must contain more than one object. This principle has many applications in various fields, including computer science, economics, and even daily life.
One of the most common applications of the pigeonhole principle is in computer science, specifically in the field of data compression. In data compression, the goal is to represent a large amount of data using a smaller number of bits. One way to do this is by using a technique called "lossless compression," where the original data can be recovered exactly from the compressed version. The pigeonhole principle can be used to prove that certain lossless compression schemes are optimal, meaning that no other scheme can compress the data more efficiently. For example, suppose we have a set of data consisting of the letters A, B, C, and D. If we want to represent this data using only 2 bits per letter, we can use the pigeonhole principle to prove that at least one of the letters must be represented by two different combinations of 2 bits. This means that the data cannot be losslessly compressed using 2 bits per letter, and we must use a different method or a higher number of bits to achieve optimal compression.
Another application of the pigeonhole principle is in economics, specifically in the study of market equilibrium. Market equilibrium occurs when the quantity of a good or service that is being supplied is equal to the quantity that is being demanded. The pigeonhole principle can be used to prove that under certain conditions, market equilibrium is always possible. For example, suppose we have a market for a certain type of good, and there are three sellers who each have a certain number of units of the good to sell. The pigeonhole principle states that if the sellers have a total of more than three units of the good, then at least one of them must have more than one unit to sell. This means that there must be at least one buyer who is willing to purchase more than one unit of the good, which is necessary for the market to reach equilibrium.
In daily life, the pigeonhole principle can also be used to solve practical problems. For example, suppose you have a group of friends who are going on a road trip, and you need to decide which car to take. You have three cars to choose from, each with a different number of seats. The pigeonhole principle states that if you have more friends than the total number of seats in the three cars, then at least one of the cars must have more than one person in it. This can help you decide which car to take, and also serve as a reminder to carpool to save space and reduce environmental impact.
In conclusion, the pigeonhole principle is a simple but powerful concept that has many applications in various fields, including computer science, economics, and daily life. Its versatility and simplicity make it a valuable tool for solving a wide range of problems.
Bullying Research Paper
The advent and widespread use of electronic means of communication such as mobile phones and the Internet has made it easier to bully anonymously, through the use of pseudonyms and temporary accounts, at any time and in any place involving a wide audience. Relational forms of bullying take precedence over physical modes of attack as children grow older and their social skills improve. Although more research is needed to identify the underlying mechanisms, findings suggest a need to sensitize students and educators about the potential academic risks associated with high-frequency cell phone use. The method included the questionnaires, while the results clarified the correlation between the two factors being studied. There is also some initial evidence that bullying perpetration is a significant risk factor of poor academic performance. Internalizing Problems Several cross-sectional studies have demonstrated negative associations between peer victimization and a range of internalizing problems, including loneliness and low self-esteem. In Portuguese schools, children are asked to repeat sixth grade unless they pass a rigorous test.
Perfect Resources and Capabilities Analysis Essay Samples to Improve Your Studies
Having friends is not sufficient in itself to protect against victimization. Participants were 477 male, first year students at a liberal arts college. These discrepancies might be explained by differences in methodologies used, as studies drew on different informants to assess bullying victimization mothers and peers, respectively. Characteristics of Children and Adolescents Involved in Bullying The Bully There is some controversy in the literature about the profile of bullies. Impact Beyond Victims Finally, there is evidence that bullying and victimization have a negative impact not only on the individual children involved but also on bystanders. Our results showed that there was a positive correlation between poor academic performance and getting fewer than 8 hours of sleep a night. The review concluded that only a small number of anti-bullying programs have been evaluated rigorously enough to permit strong conclusions about their effectiveness.
Thus, after controlling for other established predictors, increased cell phone use was associated with decreased academic performance. Studies indicate that bullies are more likely to have parents who are authoritarian and punitive, disagree more often, and are less supportive. This suggests that the difference in prevalence rates between countries may be, at least partly, accounted for by external factors including national differences in school policies and environments but also differences in the methodologies used self-reports vs. There is no consistently robust evidence to suggest that ethnic minority children are more at risk of being bullied at school. It is worth noting, however, that the path from psychological maladjustment to victimization has not been replicated in all studies. It is not currently understood whether the relationship between risk factors and bullying is the same across different school and class environments or the extent to which consequences of bullying and victimization are dependent on class-and school-level factors. To understand more fully how bullying behaviors develop, future research will also need to investigate in more depth how individual and classroom level factors interact to cause involvement in bullying.
This suggests that a small number of victims are targeted consistently and systematically in secondary school. Although males are more likely to engage in physical forms of bullying such as pushing and hitting, females are, according to some studies, more adept at employing relational forms of aggression e. Wolke and Samara 2004 found that more than half of victims of bullying by siblings 50. The prevalence of bullies in primary school ranges, in most countries, between 7 % and 12 % and remains at those levels in secondary school around 10 %. For instance, Bond et al.
Fewer students are defenders by middle school, and the majority becomes witnesses or bystanders when bullying takes place. Other studies have found that only a relatively small proportion of children around 4—5 % are victimized repeatedly over time in primary school. The effect of bullying on later offending was especially pronounced when bullying was assessed in older children. Mother-child interactions at 5 years were characterized by hostile, restrictive, or overly punitive parenting. Family characteristics are related to bullying victimization in different ways for boys and girls.
The implications of this study could be used to promote high schoolers sleeping at least 8 hours a night. A recent meta-analysis of studies measuring school bullying and later offending found that school bullies were 2. Berger 2007 in her analysis found that one detail of educational policy in Portugal may account, among other things, for this higher rate of bullying. When research on bullying started in the 1980s, bullying was perceived to comprise only episodes of physical or verbal aggression where the victim was physically attacked or called names. Results are discussed in terms of implications for male students' engagement and success in college, and in terms of the construct validity of video game addiction. Stability in bullying victimization has been explained in two ways.
This stereotype was later disputed by research that suggested bullies are socially competent and have superior theory of mind skills i. . A US longitudinal study that began in 2002 with a sample of about 1,700 adolescents found that being a bully had a stronger negative effect on self-perceived academic competence over time than being a victim after controlling for demographic background variables and baseline academic competence Ma et al. The majority of longitudinal studies investigating associations between peer victimization and psychological maladjustment have found evidence for both directions. Research has identified that bully-victims are the most troubled group among children and adolescents involved in bullying incidents. Victims and, especially, bully-victims are more likely to show elevated levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness; perform less well academically; and display conduct problems.
Some studies have reported that bullying victimization is relatively stable over a period of up to 4 years in primary school and often continues in secondary school. Some research suggests that bullies understand the emotions of others but do not share them. No consistent gender differences have been identified in the use of verbal bullying e. Delinquency and Criminality Despite showing fewer adjustment problems than victims and bully-victims, bullies are at an increased risk of later delinquency and criminal offending. Initially, studies described children who bullied others as insecure, anxious individuals who have low self-esteem, are unpopular among their classmates, and use aggressive strategies to resolve conflicts. Whole-school interventions were found to be more effective in reducing victimization and bullying than interventions that focused only on curriculum changes or social and behavioral skills training. They were significantly exposed to higher levels of marital conflicts and more likely to come from marginally lower socioeconomic backgrounds.