Gabriel Almond was a political scientist and professor who made significant contributions to the field of comparative politics. Born in 1908 in New York City, Almond received his undergraduate degree from Columbia University and his PhD from the University of Chicago. He began his academic career at the University of Chicago before moving on to teach at Yale University and eventually Stanford University, where he spent the majority of his career.
One of Almond's most well-known contributions to the field of comparative politics is his concept of the "civic culture." This theory, which he developed in collaboration with Sidney Verba, suggests that the success of a democratic political system depends on the culture of its citizens. According to Almond and Verba, a strong civic culture is characterized by a high level of political participation and a shared commitment to democratic values. In contrast, a weak civic culture is one in which there is low political participation and a lack of commitment to democratic values.
In addition to his work on the civic culture, Almond also made important contributions to the study of political development. He argued that political development is a process of modernization that involves the transformation of traditional societies into modern, industrialized ones. This process involves the development of new political institutions and the emergence of new social groups, such as the middle class.
Throughout his career, Almond was highly influential in the field of comparative politics and his work continues to be widely cited and studied by scholars today. He received numerous awards and accolades for his contributions to the field, including the American Political Science Association's James Madison Award for distinguished contributions to political science.
In conclusion, Gabriel Almond was a prominent political scientist and professor who made significant contributions to the field of comparative politics. His work on the civic culture and political development has had a lasting impact on the study of democratic systems and the process of modernization.
Gabriel A. Almond
Here lies the credit of Almond. At that time, the university was achieving an international reputation and the generosity of wealthy local families enhanced its ability to attract and retain academic stars. Because of the tremendous impact of globalisation the world has become too small. But political system includes many other ideas besides legality. He was the author or co-author of numerous scholarly articles and books. The book considers the role of fundamental religion most broadly, from its social roots to its political consequences.
Seven decades of creativity is a record few scholars attain. In both democratic and authoritarian systems the multifunctional character of structure is found. In every political system there are certain structures and these cannot be confused with each other. Biographic Memoirs Volume 87 contains the biographies of deceased members of the National Academy of Sciences and bibliographies of their published works. Written by leading comparativists and area studies experts, this text introduces key concepts about political institutions, culture, and policy and follows them in seven authoritative country studies, which facilitates the comparison of political experience across the region. For clarity and smoothness of thought and analysis we want to make a very brief survey of the origin.
Gabriel Almond (January 12, 1911 â€” December 25, 2002), American educator, politician, scientist, author
Boston: Little Brown 1982 With others. It includes "A History of Political Science" as well as two pieces on the growth - and controversy about - area studies. Comparative Politics: A Theoretical Approach. The political structures may be specialised, non-specialised or may be primitive. He wants to revolutionise the system and study of political science.
The conversion takes place through feedback. Almond has pointed out four such agencies: 1 Institutional interest groups. Some critics are of the view that he has thrown very little light on the structural aspects of political systems. His study in Politics is interdisciplinary in nature, drawing from both Social science, Political economy and State. It is a better system in comparison with other systems.
The output functions are: 1. For example, during the British rule Indian society and culture were influenced by British culture. The characteristics are: 1 There are simple and complex political systems in different parts of the globe. Through the process if political socialisation people gradually adjust themselves with the political system. There are tutelary democracies in some countries. In liberal democracies the pressure groups participate in the legislative function.
Even the simplest political systems have political structures which may be compared with the developed structures of the West. In the concept structural functionalism the students must know both the structures and the functions. Almond was The Struggle for Democracy in Germany 1949; written with others and edited by Almond , The American People and Foreign Policy 1950 , The Appeals of Communism 1954 , The Politics of the Developing Areas 1960; written with others and edited by Almond , Political Development 1970 , and Plutocracy and Politics in New York City 1998. Adaptation means make suitable for a new use or purpose. In a number of articles, brought together in A Discipline Divided 1990 , Almond deplored the divisions in political science. In developed political systems of the West schools, churches, political parties and other voluntary organisations generally play the leading role in socialising the people. His innovative terms do not end with structure.
The articulation of interest by such groups is quite prominent in all political systems. We cannot form a definite reply. Almond also wrote Harold Dwight Laswell Biographical Memoir. The political system cannot take separate steps or adopt measures for each set of demands and claims. But in an undemocratic polity, such as a dictatorship or an autocracy, the ratio is reversed: one effective demand comes from the people, while the nine come from the government Demands are of several kinds. First, the book examines Communist literature the Lenin and Stalin classics and current Party media to see what the Communists themselves expect of their movement. This is essential at least for two purposes.
The values, thoughts, ideas, feelings of one system are influenced by those of other systems. Plato suggested a scheme of education for the ideal state whose purpose was to train the citizens to make them suitable for ideal state. Easton and Almond have borrowed the terms—input and output from economics for the purpose of analysing the functions and behaviour of political systems and their different structures. Whatever may the sources of demands be, the political system, for convenience, should respond. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. The parties and groups also enjoy sufficient freedom in discharge of their functions. This influence is never a one-way traffic.
Even the cultures of primitive political systems are partially moulded by the developed cultures of the West. In every system there arises tension and conflict and all these should be managed. In his opinion the term state is mainly a legal concept. He uses political system instead of state. His Democracy research incorporates themes from Hinduism, Nazism, Human rights and Fundamentalism. It has been held by Almond and many others that behind the building up of a general system there is the very crucial role of adaptation and change.
The article with Lasswell represented an innovative approach to citizen encounters with government, looking at the social and psychological micro-interactions of citizens face-to-face with officials. How do beliefs influence individual political behavior and the performance of a political system? His aim was, as he says, nto explain and even predict cycles of short range or long range change of the political system in response to various kinds of environmental pressures. He also viewed that the systems or the parts of the society are quite normal divisions and the functions which they perform are also normal. The parts perform their allotted duties but the parts are not completely independent on each other. He has also admitted that there may be minor variations in some of the characteristics but the main theme remains unaltered. In his noted work The Politics of the Developing Areas Almond has drawn our attention to an interesting issue.