Friction loss in pipe lab report. Lab #4 2022-11-05
Friction loss in pipe lab report Rating:
Friction loss in pipes is an important factor to consider in the design and operation of fluid transportation systems. It refers to the energy loss that occurs as a fluid flows through a pipe due to the internal friction between the fluid and the pipe walls. This loss can have significant impacts on the efficiency and performance of the system, and it is important to understand and measure it in order to optimize the design and operation of the system.
One way to measure friction loss in pipes is through laboratory experiments. In a typical friction loss lab, a fluid is passed through a pipe of known diameter and length, and the pressure drop across the pipe is measured. The pressure drop can then be used to calculate the friction loss using the Darcy-Weisbach equation, which relates the friction loss to the flow rate, pipe diameter, and fluid properties.
There are several factors that can affect the friction loss in pipes, including the roughness of the pipe walls, the viscosity of the fluid, and the velocity of the flow. In a lab setting, these factors can be varied in order to study their effects on friction loss. For example, the roughness of the pipe walls can be controlled by using pipes with different finishes or by adding inserts with different roughness levels. The viscosity of the fluid can be varied by using different fluids or by changing the temperature of the fluid. The velocity of the flow can be controlled by adjusting the flow rate or the diameter of the pipe.
In addition to the Darcy-Weisbach equation, other methods can be used to predict friction loss in pipes. These methods include the Colebrook-White equation, the Swamee-Jain equation, and the Hazen-Williams equation. These equations are based on empirical data and are useful for predicting friction loss in a wide range of conditions.
In summary, friction loss in pipes is an important factor to consider in the design and operation of fluid transportation systems. Laboratory experiments can be used to measure friction loss and study its various factors, and various equations can be used to predict friction loss in different conditions. Understanding and managing friction loss is key to optimizing the performance of fluid transportation systems.
Lab Report opportunities.alumdev.columbia.edu
In this experiment, centrifugal pumps have been used to determine the flow rates and the pressure head. The graph illustrates a turbulent flow in which n is given by the gradient of the graph, which is 1. The first diameter was 0 inches and the second was 0 inches. This relationship is reflected in the table of results as a small increase the flow velocity leads to a significant fall in the friction factor. The agreement in these values could be that experimental errors were minimal in this region, thus, the laminar flow region was more consistent the overall trend observed in the experiment. In the first experiment, water was pumped through two different diameter pipes and an elbow connection. This lab encompasses the use of orifice and venture flow meters, pitot-static tubes, manometers and different types of pipes.
When a fluid is flowing through a pipe, it exerts a viscous resistance that creates a loss of energy. Gaetano Restivo TA: Spencer Golze Date of the Experiment: November 6, 2014 Submitted: November 13, 2014 Team Members: Myrian Gonzalez Smit Patel Rick Getts Lab 7 - Friction Loss in Pipe Flows Page- 1 Abstract: This lab measures the different flow rates in pipes using a head loss study unit. Using this data, the friction factors were calculated for both experiments, then compared to the Moody Diagram. Finally, some errors limited the overall results obtained in the experiment. We first tried to calibrate the experimental setup before beginning. Furthermore, the dimensionless groups Reynolds number and friction factor were determined from the results generated in the experiment using their relationships with other parameters for the purpose of analysis. As such, this region is referred to as the transition region, and should be avoided for the purposes of this lab.
This valve should face the volumetric tank, and a short length of flexible tube should be attached to it, to prevent splashing. Because atmospheric pressure can be taken as zero gauge pressure, the major head loss was taken as the head before the fluid entered the pipe. In pipe system design, the pressure drop between two locations determines the minimum acceptable cross-sectional area of the pipeline given the flow rate requirements for a desired output in a system. This value of pressure drop is then accounted for by the pumps as the amount of power loss due to frictional losses in the pipe is the power required to be added to the system by the booster pumps. The air bubbles may have interrupted the4 fluid flow rate during the initial readings. This step was followed by connecting the long hose to the manometers, then using the rotameter to set the flow rate to the required values.
Figure 1 Experimental Setup Figure 2 Diagrammatic Representation of the Experimental Setup PROCEDURE The experiment involves a known flow of water through long and small pipes to observe the head losses. EQUIPMENTS TO BE USED The system is set on the hydraulic bench in order to make use of water supply and volumetric measurement facilities of the bench. There were two different diameters of pipe used during this part of the lab. By opening and closing valves, the flow could be directed into a specific diameter pipe. M Frank, 2008; Fluid Mechanics, 6th edition.
As during the sudden enlargement, the minor loss was also increased. The head loss was measured as the head before the water entered the pipe, and the discharge of the pipe was collected over a period of 30 seconds. The same procedure was repeated for the other pipes the time taken recorded. The head was measured before water entered the pipe, and the pipe discharged into the atmosphere. Conversely, the time taken to fill the 10 liters empty tank was noted. The energy loss may be in the form of pressure loss in the system due to friction, pipe bend or connections etc. According to the Darcy and Weisbach expression to calculate friction factor, the Fanning friction factor is inversely proportional to the square of the flow velocity.
Experiment 1_Friction loss along a pipe lab report. opportunities.alumdev.columbia.edu
The values of the diameter and the length of the pipes are given in the lab manual. This experiment will focus on the energy losses due to friction in the pipe, the relationship between head loss loss in pressure , friction factor, flow rate and Reynolds number for both laminar and turbulent flow in a smooth pipe will also be investigated. This change of energy is usually referred to as friction head loss, which represents the amount of energy converted into heat per unit weight of fluid. The experiment is accurate and gives us a good idea of the head loss in pipes. Two types of fluid flows were observed: laminar and turbulent. An example calculation of the head lose is written below: Fig3: the beaker which is used to collect the water from the pipe system on slower flowrates instead of the normal tank which has the capacity of 3 litters Fig4: the value gage which is used to alternate the flow of liquid which goes through the pipe system Fig5: the hydraulic bench which contains the pump and the control panel, and a tank wick can store the water existing the pipe system Fig6: the control panel which have the on and off switch of the pump and the value to control the water flow of the pipe and a manometer which aids into measuring the water deposed into the water tank Fig7: the tank which is part of the hydraulic bench and the ball and chain mechanism which is dropped off whenever is required to collect the water in the tank Fig8:the whole pipe system in one picture which includes the manometer and the connecting tubes which aids the water through the pipe system, and by connecting the tube coming out of the manometer to reding tabs of each tube we can take the readings Procedure The procedure for this lab exercise is to be in the following order: 1 sure the manometer is connected the reading taps which is located near the centre of the Counsel be sure that the only taps open at the time are the one that the readings are being recorded for. Then tighten the air bleed screw.
You can view it online here: The experiment will be performed in two parts: high flow rates and low flow rates. Record readings on the mercury manometer, reflecting pressure loss in the test pipe between the 2 test points, and the water level reading on the measuring water. As the head loss is directly related to the friction factor, it is observed that the head loss in laminar flow is much higher than the head loss in turbulent flow. Experiment 2: In the second experiment, water was run through a copper pipe. Open the bench valve progressively, and run the flow until all air is purged. Fluid Friction Lab Report This experiment was carried out to investigate the friction factor as well as the major and minor head losses because of friction in three different types of bore pipes, namely elbow pipes, expansion and construction pipes, and long pipes. A hydraulic motor pumps water up the pipe and into the head tank with the stilling matter for laminar flow.
Similarly, poor readings from the manometer scales may have affected the accuracy of the results. This experiment will focus on the energy losses due to friction in the pipe, the relationship between head loss loss in pressure , friction factor, flow rate and Reynolds number for both laminar and turbulent flow in a smooth pipe will also be investigated. The setup began by first calibrating the apparatus before starting the experiment; the calibration was carried out by removing the trapped air bubbles from the linings of the connecting tubes that connect the pipes and the manometer. To improve the reliability of subsequent experiments, conducting the experiment in a controlled environment should be considered in order to minimise the effects of variation of temperature or viscosity in the fluid system. Hg H20 Head Loss m Volum e m3 Time s 22 22. The flow rates via the apparatus were adjusted using the control valve operation on the hydraulics bench. THEORY Viscosity of a fluid is its resistance that is produced when the fluid flows.
The slope of this linear relationship showed that as the flow rate increases, the velocity increases which means the Reynolds Number gets bigger and the head loss coefficient increases. Since mercury is considered a hazardous substance, it cannot be used in undergraduate fluid mechanics labs. This lab also allowed for the comparison of head loss values from measurement and then from calculative theory. LAB REPORT ENERGY LOSSES DUE TO FRICTION IN A CYLINDRICAL PIPE INTRODUCTION The flow of fluid in a pipe is accompanied by the loss of energies as a result of the interaction between the fluid and the viscous stresses on the wall of the pipe. It is possible to classify head losses as significant head losses or minor head losses.
The following steps should be followed. The head loss due to friction can be calculated from the Darcy-Weisbach equation: where: : head loss due to flow resistance f: Darcy-Weisbach coefficient L: pipe length D: pipe diameter v: average velocity g: gravitational acceleration. Hg h2 Δh cm. The experimental results should be divided into three groups laminar, transitional, and turbulent and plotted separately. Major losses are associated with frictional energy loss that is caused by the viscous effects of the fluid and roughness of the pipe wall. AIM AND OBJECTIVE The aim and objective of this experiment was to determine experimentally the head loss in a smooth cylindrical pipe and to establish its relationship with the fluid flow rate in the pipe.