East and west pakistan. Pakistan Maps & Facts 2022-10-20
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East and West Pakistan were two regions that made up the country of Pakistan until 1971. The two regions were separated by about 1,000 miles of Indian territory and had distinct cultural, linguistic, and political differences.
East Pakistan, also known as East Bengal, was located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent and was predominantly Bengali-speaking. West Pakistan, on the other hand, was located in the western part of the subcontinent and was primarily Punjabi, Sindhi, and Pashtun-speaking.
The creation of Pakistan in 1947, following the partition of India, was largely driven by the demand for a separate Muslim-majority state in the region. However, East and West Pakistan had little in common beyond their shared religion and the fact that they were both part of the newly formed country.
Political tensions between the two regions began to emerge almost immediately after the creation of Pakistan. East Pakistan, which had a larger population and a more developed economy, felt marginalized by the central government, which was dominated by West Pakistani elites. This led to a growing sense of resentment among the people of East Pakistan and fueled the movement for greater autonomy and political representation.
The tensions between East and West Pakistan came to a head in 1971, when East Pakistan declared independence and formed the country of Bangladesh. The move was met with military intervention by the Pakistani government, which led to a brutal civil war and the eventual independence of Bangladesh.
The East Pakistan crisis was a significant event in the history of Pakistan and had far-reaching consequences for the country. It highlighted the deep cultural, linguistic, and political divisions within Pakistan and underscored the importance of addressing these differences in order to build a more united and cohesive nation.
East and West Pakistan conflicts
In the east, when India and Pakistan were partitioned, West Bengal became part of India and East Bengal became the eastern wing of Pakistan present-day Bangladesh. It is the right of every Muslim man and woman to seek knowledge equally. Shifting of the Capital The decision of shifting of the capital city from Karachi to Islamabad was perhaps a good step taken in the regime of President Ayyub Khan 1960 but it hit the East Pakistanis like a bullet. Mukti Bahini Indian Secret Intelligence Services formed an Anti Pakistan Wing East Pakistan named as Mukti Bahini meaning Freedom fighters or Liberation Army, which actively participated in persuading Population of East Pakistan to demand for a separate country. A peaceful resolution of such issues will keep marginalized groups from being exploited by banned outfits and violent actors for their vested interests against the state. Many others were injured in the firing. The students of the University of Dhaka and other political activists defied the law and organised a protest on 21st February 1952.
Emerging disparities between the two wings of Pakistan Introduction In chapter 4, we read about the Lahore Resolution of 1940, when Sher-e-Bangla A. Though the Bengali east wing was economically more important, political power rested in the Sindhi and Punjabi factions of the west wing. As a matter of fact, the Bengalis also held West Pakistan responsible for their economic miseries. He also prohibited all political activities by banning all political parties. Kamalpur, Belonia and Battle of Boyra are a few examples.
The Bangladesh Liberation War was a South Asian war of independence in 1971 which established the sovereign nation of Bangladesh. A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrections. The demand of east Pakistanis did not have any impact on the west Pakistanis-dominated government. Between 12 and 16 million people moved, and up to one million of these were killed. Even the minimal requirements of a working central government — skilled personnel, equipment, and a capital city with government buildings — were missing. In addition to full regional autonomy, the manifesto demanded that the central government should delegate the eastern province all subjects except defence, foreign affairs and currency. Both forces had to be commanded by British officers: the navy until 1953 and the air force until 1957.
Bengalis believed that the West Pakistani leadership was showing an irrational bias in favour of Urdu at the expense of Bangla. But these are internal solutions. Although the military gave border control over to paramilitary forces, the armed forces remained ready for deployment in case of emergency. As a result, Pakistan not only incurred Soviet hostility but also ultimately triggered a Soviet military supply program in India that more than offset the United States assistance to Pakistan. Retrieved 23 December 2016. In Islam seeking education, conducting research, and valuing consensus have great significance. Meanwhile, both at the Centre and in the Provinces, the politicians were mostly preoccupied with self-interest.
June-September The eleven sectors See also: List of sectors in Bangladesh Liberation Ear. The subsequent history of Pakistan proved that the merger of two widely different regions could not exist for long. In Augus11958, Ataur Rahman was appointed for the third time after the temporary stay of the Abu Hossain Ministry and he held the office till Martial Law was promulgated in the country. It is determined to commit suicide. As time went by, alongside the geographical, social and cultural differences, there also developed gradual disparity between the two wings in economic and other institutional levels such as military, educational and political representations. Bangladesh, in terms of national resources, is not such as to develop a self-reliant economy. The air and naval war The Indian Air Force carried out several sorties against Pakistan, and within a week, IAF aircraft dominated the skies of East Pakistan.
Causes Of Separation Of East And West Pakistan Assignment Essay Example
Located at the juncture of the Indian and Eurasian plates, the country is highly prone to earthquakes due to plate tectonics. In his book The 1971 Indo-Pak War: A Soldier's Narrative, Pakistan Army's Major General Hakeem Arshad Qureshi, a veteran of this conflict, noted: We must accept the fact that, as a people, we had also contributed to the bifurcation of our own country. Retrieved 26 February 2012. West Pakistan feared that this would break their treaty with the United States Hussain. However, the products produced were not sold directly here but went to West Pakistan and later came to the East as Western exports and the proceeds were taken back to the West.
It was our collective 'conduct' that had provided the enemy an opportunity to dismember us. In the revenue sector, a total of 254 crore rupees were spent in East Pakistan at that time. East Pakistan was not allowed to deal directly with any neighbouring countries East Pakistani had no representation in the armed forces or in government or local office. This Ministry undertook measures for developing East Pakistan, which included the establishment of a permanent office of the Controller of Import and Export in East Pakistan. Retrieved 25 March 2012. After Pakistani air strikes, Indian troops entered the war December 1971.
No unity could be developed between the distinctive languages, culture tradition and livelihood of the people of these two parts of Pakistan. The development funds were not given to them honestly. They used irritants not unusual between neighbouring countries as bases for their campaign and used every national and international forum to defame India. It was a period of intrigues and uncertainties. Ordnance factories were also established in West Pakistan. Even the need to repress nationalist movements recurred as regional groups within Pakistan sought greater autonomy from central control.
Why did East Pakistan separated from West Pakistan?
This sorry state of affairs compelled east Pakistanis to believe that the central government treated them as second-rate citizens in a country for which they had fought for so long. A general strike was also observed in all districts of the Country. Unlike India, Pakistan inherited little of the infrastructure or industry and few of the educated and skilled workers produced by the British Raj. In the East Pakistan became the independent state of Bangladesh on 16 December 1971. United States-Pakistan relations were cordial, and throughout the late 1940s, Pakistan sought to nurture those close relations and gain access to United States military support; initially, these attempts were rebuffed. See also: Mukti Bahini At first resistance was spontaneous and disorganized, and not expected to be prolonged.