Drainage patterns are the shapes that channels and streams take on the surface of the land. These patterns are determined by the topography of the land, the rock type, and the amount of precipitation that falls in an area. There are several types of drainage patterns that can occur, including dendritic, radial, trellis, rectangular, and annular.
A dendritic drainage pattern is one of the most common types of patterns and is characterized by a tree-like shape. It occurs when streams and channels form in a network that branches out from a central point, much like the branches of a tree. This type of pattern is often found in areas with relatively flat topography and is common in sedimentary rock formations.
A radial drainage pattern occurs when streams and channels radiate outward from a central point, much like the spokes of a wheel. This type of pattern is often found in mountainous areas where the topography is steep. It is also common in areas with volcanic rock formations.
A trellis drainage pattern is characterized by a series of parallel channels that are separated by ridges. This type of pattern is often found in areas with alternating layers of hard and soft rock. The channels follow the softer rock layers, while the ridges form along the harder layers.
A rectangular drainage pattern is characterized by a series of channels that are perpendicular to one another and form a rectangular pattern. This type of pattern is often found in areas with a uniform rock type and a relatively flat topography.
An annular drainage pattern is characterized by a series of channels that form a circular pattern around a central point. This type of pattern is often found in areas with a uniform rock type and a relatively flat topography.
In conclusion, drainage patterns are the shapes that channels and streams take on the surface of the land. These patterns are determined by the topography of the land, the rock type, and the amount of precipitation that falls in an area. There are several types of drainage patterns, including dendritic, radial, trellis, rectangular, and annular. Understanding drainage patterns is important for a variety of purposes, including predicting the potential for flooding, managing water resources, and designing infrastructure such as roads and buildings.
Drainage patterns are governed by the topography of the land. . Examples of such drainage patterns are the rivers of the northern plain. Rills and grooves at the flank of tidal channels. In other areas, tunnel channels occur as isolated, hanging, channel sections adorning uplands without integration to other channels or modern drainage. The main objective behind this is to explain complex concepts in an extremely simplified language so that students can get a good hold of the concept and can perform well in the examinations.
Definition of Drainage opportunities.alumdev.columbia.edu
Changes in vegetation patterns can often be a good indicator of hydraulic patterns Pethick, 1992. Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 2354—2374. The above drainage distribution along the West Coast is relevant in the present-day context. Consider the following statements: 1. The drainage patterns indicate the type of topography and gradient of the land. There are various types of drainage patterns across the world, but in this article, we will focus more on the Trellis Drainage pattern and its various details. Downturned folds called synclines form valleys in which resides the main channel of the stream.
The streams called subsequent rivers cut out the valleys called vales and join the main river called consequent river at right angles. What are the 10 features of drama? What are the 5 features of drama? Subparallel tunnel channels and associated landforms of the Superior Lobe, Minnesota, USA. Law of stream numbers: the numbers of streams of different orders in a given drainage basin tend closely to approximate an inverse 2. That means that the stream will be more competent to carry larger sediment, if a supply is available to be moved or eroded. Channel morphologies are equally diverse and include straight-walled channels of uniform width Figs. Subsurface drainage is the removal of water from the rootzone.
[Geography Notes] on Trellis Drainage Pattern Pdf for Exam 2023
In contrast, a Trellis river pattern is formed when a river and its tributaries join at approximately 90-degrees and are found where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other. Digital elevation model of south-central Michigan displaying a series of anastomosing Saginaw Lobe tunnel channels red lines with segments that flowed uphill and crossed drainage divides dashed white lines on DEM and inset profiles to feed a subaerial outburst flood in the Central Kalamazoo River Valley. The tributary streams extend the head ward reaches up slope toward the top of the volcano. Ditched marshes a common practice in Europe and North America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries have both less course density and pool density Lathrop et al. What is the most common drainage pattern? Water in such areas is not transported rapidly and tends to pile up making the low-lying zones more liable to flooding e. An abrupt change occurred ca. Streams follow the path of least resistance and thus are concentrated in places were exposed rock is the weakest Fig.
Note: Rectangular and trellis drainage can be differentiated on the basis of the spaces in streams. Distinctive patterns are acquired by stream networks in consequence of adjustment to geologic structure. Their forms or pattern develops in response to the local topography and subsurface geology. Some landscapes are naturally resilient to changing conditions, whereas others require more intervention through watershed management or stream restoration to achieve or maintain equilibrium. The forest reappearance ~450yr BP reflects the 200yr-delayed response of a globally positive budget of the lake level.
The discordant drainage pattern follows the initial slope and is unaffected by the alterations in the path. In the natural sciences, it has been accepted for a long time that certain basic drainage pat- terns such as the dendritic, trellis, radial, parallel, annular, and rectangular are associated with specific land surface materials. It is further segregated into antecedent and superimposed drainage. Drainage is a well-defined channel constructed to direct the flow of water. It has to have:? Often, sediment collects into bars or other bedforms, only mobilized during times of significant runoff when the power of the stream is great enough.
When these conditions translate to major channels, interesting situations may arise in the circulation pattern. It is mainly found where the hard and soft rocks exist parallel to one another. Modified from Kozlowski AL, Kehew AE, and Bird BC 2005 Outburst flood origin of the Central Kalamazoo River Valley, Michigan, USA. The subsequent river system is formed after the flow of the river on that path. The pattern that is formed is dependent on the relief and the rocks that make up the surface of the area. Between 2,500 and 2,000yr BP, short fluctuations in lake level are evidenced and correlated with opening of the landscape higher Graminacea percentages , but the Alchornea peaks are associated with a high stand ca. What is an example of drama in literature? Several proxies have been examined in the cores.
A dendritic drainage is commonly interpreted to reflect a relatively homogeneous substrate of moderate down slope gradients. Features of dramaThe feature of is to be performed on stage or to be performed in front of an audience. Base level is an important concept in watershed hydrology because all water within the basin ultimately migrates to the central outlet. The two main methods used are palynology Reynaud-Farrera et al. Here the mainstream and its tributaries resemble the branches of a tree. A river joined by the tributaries at approximately right angles develops a Trellis drainage pattern. The scientists will search for submerged beach ridges and stream valleys to determine the area drainage pattern.
In a radial drainage system, the streams radiate outwards from a central high point. Glacial Processes Past and Present Geological Society of America Special Paper 337, 69—82. Longitudinal profiles of flow paths may be undulating and have convex-up or reverse gradients that flow uphill, cross drainage divides, and trend oblique to the regional slope Fig. Stream-channel classification systems e. Geological Society of America. Over geological time, a stream will erode its drainage basin into a smooth profile similar to that shown in Figure 13.