Black holes are some of the most mysterious and fascinating objects in the universe. They are regions of space where the normal laws of physics break down, and where the gravitational pull is so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape from them.
Black holes can be divided into two main categories: stellar black holes and supermassive black holes. Stellar black holes are formed when a massive star collapses at the end of its life. These black holes are typically just a few times more massive than the Sun and are about the size of a city.
Supermassive black holes, on the other hand, are much larger and more massive. They can be millions or billions of times more massive than the Sun and are found at the center of most galaxies, including our own Milky Way.
Black holes are incredibly dense, with a mass packed into a small volume. This means that they have a very strong gravitational pull, which is what allows them to trap light and other matter.
One of the most interesting things about black holes is that they can be detected even though they are invisible. Scientists can infer the presence of a black hole by observing how it affects nearby objects. For example, if a black hole is located near a star, the star will be pulled towards the black hole and will speed up as it gets closer. By measuring the speed of the star and its distance from the black hole, scientists can calculate the mass of the black hole.
Black holes also emit radiation, called Hawking radiation, which is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who first proposed the idea. This radiation is thought to be caused by the intense gravitational field of the black hole, which causes particles to be created and destroyed in pairs. One particle falls into the black hole, while the other escapes and is emitted as radiation.
There are still many mysteries surrounding black holes that scientists are trying to understand. For example, it is not yet clear how black holes are formed, or how they grow to be so massive. Additionally, there is still much to learn about the effects of black holes on the surrounding matter and how they might be used in the future.
Overall, black holes are some of the most extraordinary objects in the universe, and their study has helped us to better understand the fundamental laws of physics and the nature of the universe.
Top 13 Derivable Consequences Quotes & Sayings
The model tries to be all-inclusive. Discrimination, racism, lack of equality of opportunity and stereotyping are issues that the concept assist in exploring. Thus 3 concepts underpin the unique cultural being: Culture, Ethnicity, and Religion. This concept, one of five within the framework, is perhaps the most crucial in the process of developing cultural competence. When did Joyce Travelbee died? Community The community is described in terms of a group of people living in the same locality and sharing interests and a common identity. Whilst they engender considerable debate there are similarities in the conceptualisations and processes that lead to the development of cultural competence. Theorists often revise their thinking and formulations, and seek validation through application and testing.
. Current and future nurse scientists have and will continue to extend the theory to different patient populations. A group of Maori nurses developed the concept as a means of analysing nursing practice from the perspective of the indigenous people who are a minority Ramsden, 1990; Ramsden, 1992. Some concepts are described as they pertain to the theoretical development. The influences of cultural values, beliefs, practices on communication styles and skills, and the knowledge of these in the cultural care of individuals and families are beneficial to outcomes of care. UNCERTAINTY IN ILLNESS THEORY Merle H. In developing the concept of cultural safety, Ramsden has been mindful of the nature of interactions that are bicultural in nature.
Importance Derivable Consequences It can be said that on the whole Rogers
The theory helps explain the stresses associated with the diagnosis and treatment of major illnesses or chronic conditions, the processes by which individuals assess and respond to the uncertainty inherent in an illness experience, and the importance of professional caregivers in providing information and supporting individuals in understanding and managing uncertainty. Most of these theories consider the four main elements — that is, Health, Environment, Person and Nursing care. Bechtel GA and Davidhizar R 1999 A cultural assessment model for ED patients Journal of Emergency Nursing 25 5 : 377-380. Giger and Davidhizar 1999 include health practices, values that influence these health care practices and the locus of control as one of these values across cultures. Where words may have multiple meanings, caution should be exercised in defining and making their meanings precise, particularly when they are borrowed from across disciplines. With respect to life opportunities in a multicultural context, social organisation systems may discriminate against certain groups on the basis of ethnicity, religion, politics and socio-economic status.
Topic 3 : I. Theory Analysis and Evaluation II. Environmental Theory
Pure fresh air - "to keep the air he breathes as pure as the external air without chilling him. The broader the scope of the theory, the greater the significance. The factors that influence communication can be seen as universal to everyone. Cultural Skill Cultural skill as a process is concerned with carrying out a cultural assessment. When assessing patients, observation of the response to body contact, patterns of behaviour within the ward or department, or during examination, response to the presence of other patients, proximity with family members, and other emotional reactions may reveal the cultural meanings attached to space. The macroaspects form the wider outer circles and the microaspects the inner circle, all constituting segments of the whole. For instance, the idea of time and its meanings in different cultural contexts may not be fully appreciated.
Derivable Consequences Johnsons model guides nursing practice education and
Leininger has defined concepts as they apply to nursing. In our resource, the broadest sense of cultural diversity is being implied, although it is not possible to make this explicit on every occasion. Touch assumes specific significance of purpose and meanings in the context of the activity, and relationship with others. The central role of communication in establishing rapport and a therapeutic relationship requires the health professional to adapt communication approaches to meet the cultural needs of patients in a non-threatening manner. Generality This relates to the scope of the theory. It derives from nursing and anthropological concepts and methods of enquiry. It refers to a certain flow in our lives and the lives of others over which we have little or no control.
Assessment and intervention require previous knowledge of the cultural heritage and values, beliefs and practices of the patient. Theories evolve over time. Further Reading Campinha-Bacote J 1994 Cultural competence in psychiatric mental health nursing. The Human to Human Relationship Model of Nursing deals with the interpersonal aspects of nursing, focusing especially on mental health. As with other models of nursing, they have been constructed with concepts that are already found in the biological, behavioural and human sciences. Cultural assessment should not imply a simplistic notion that it only refers to people in relation to a limited view of cultural diversity.
Ramsden I 1993 Cultural safety in nursing education in Aotearoa New Zealand Nursing Praxis 8 3 : 4-10 Ramsden I and Spoonley P 1993 The cultural safety debate in nursing education in Aotearoa New Zealand Annual Review of Education 3: 161-174 Whanau Kawa Whakaruruhau 1991 Cultural safety Hui of the Whanau Kawa Whakaruruhau Apumoana Marae Rotura. The model proposes a framework that facilitates that assessment of the individual. The main criteria are: 1 Clarity and Simplicity; 2 Generality; 3 Empirical Precision, and; 4 Derivable Consequences. The socio-cultural and personal aspects of verbal communication, such as voice qualities, rhythm, speed, pronunciation are explained, whilst the meaning of silence in different cultures is outlined with some useful examples. The breadth and depth of understanding of the concepts may not lend themselves to application, unless one is fully conversant with the area of knowledge.
Health is an elusive state that is affected by different factors. By focusing on behavior rather than biology, the theory clearly differentiates Nursing from Medicine, although the concepts overlap with the psychosocial professions. The reconceptualised theory addresses the unique context of continual uncertainty and thereby expands the original theory to encompass the ongoing uncertain trajectory of many life-threatening and chronic illnesses. Clarity And Simplicity Marriner-Tomey 1994 suggests that the development of the theory should follow a logical process, and should be consistent its underlying goals. What are derivable consequences? These patient-specific goals and the attainment of such assist in ensuring a positive outcome.