David reimer experiment. The Cruelest Experiment in the History of Psychology: David Reimer 2022-10-16
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The David Reimer experiment, also known as the John/Joan case, was a controversial study conducted in the 1960s and 1970s by Dr. John Money, a psychologist and sexologist at Johns Hopkins University. The experiment involved a young boy named David Reimer, who was born as a twin but suffered a traumatic injury to his genitals during a circumcision procedure when he was just eight months old. As a result of the injury, Reimer's penis was severely damaged and he was unable to urinate normally.
In an effort to address this issue, Money and his colleagues recommended that Reimer undergo a sex reassignment surgery, in which his testicles would be removed and he would be raised as a girl. The surgery was performed when Reimer was 22 months old, and he was given the name Brenda. Money and his team believed that with the proper socialization and upbringing, Reimer could be successfully raised as a girl and would be able to live a normal, healthy life.
However, the experiment was a failure. Despite the surgery and being raised as a girl, Reimer always felt like a boy and struggled with gender identity issues. He experienced significant psychological distress and struggled in school and with relationships. When Reimer was 13 years old, his parents revealed the truth about his birth and the surgery to him. He then decided to transition back to living as a male and changed his name back to David.
The David Reimer experiment has been widely criticized for a number of reasons. First, it was based on the flawed premise that gender identity is purely a result of socialization and can be completely changed through medical intervention. In reality, gender identity is a complex and multifaceted aspect of a person's identity that is influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain structure, and prenatal hormonal influences.
Second, the experiment was conducted without informed consent from Reimer or his parents. They were not fully informed of the potential risks and consequences of the surgery and were not given the opportunity to consider alternative treatment options.
Finally, the experiment resulted in significant harm to Reimer. He experienced ongoing psychological distress and struggled with his identity and relationships throughout his life. He eventually committed suicide at the age of 38.
The David Reimer experiment is a cautionary tale of the dangers of attempting to manipulate and change an individual's gender identity through medical intervention. It highlights the importance of informed consent, respect for an individual's autonomy, and the need to consider the potential risks and consequences of such interventions. It also underscores the need to recognize and respect the inherent diversity of gender identity and to support individuals in their journey of self-discovery and self-expression.
David Reimer: The Boy Who Was Raised As A Girl For An Experiment
Interestingly certain presentations of schizophrenia has been in some studies correlated to child sexual abuse. Doctors need to work on their ethics, standard and practices. The Man Who Invented Gender: Engaging the Ideas of John Money. As nature made him: The boy who was raised as a girl. When he finally stopped, he never spoke to the family again. His case led to a decline in the number of sex reassignment surgeries for unambiguous XY male infants with a micropenis and other congenital malformations and brought into question the malleability of gender and sex.
The Tragic Life & Death of David Reimer, The Boy Raised as a Girl • Morbidology
Una de las escenas más estremecedoras de las terapias con Money, según relata David, es que el doctor les obligaba a quitarse la ropa en contra de la voluntad de los pequeños, y obligó a Brenda a ponerse a cuatro patas mientras su hermano Brian realizaba movimientos y tocamientos pseudosexuales contra la parte trasera de su hermana, en una escena que denominaban "ensayo sexual". They first saw Money on a television show one night where he discussed his theories about gender. Nurture had surpassed nature. However, Brenda as he was named was suffering from severe psychological and emotional difficulties and in her teens, when she found out what had happened, she reverted back to being a boy. Documentary on the life of David Reimer.
David contrajo matrimonio años más tarde, pero en poco tiempo su historia salió a la luz pública, perdiendo su empleo y a su mujer. Accordingly, Reimer claimed he developed a lifelong distrust of hospitals and medical professionals. Una historia digna de los clásicos de terror del cine. He grew up to be gay — but, unable to accept his sexuality, he committed suicide at age 38. Brian nunca pudo superar aquellos años.
Parents' fear that Brenda would one day realize her true sexuality was growing, but the problems were only beginning. Only, they made the WRONG CALL. Undoing Gender David Reimer Summary 1860 Words 8 Pages Perhaps one of the most fascinating yet depressing studies on gender, its fluidity, and how oppressive it can be is the case of David Reimer. Embryo Project Encyclopedia 2017-11-15. Next, the right to confidentiality was not even considered. David also recalls receiving anger and verbal abuse from Money if they resisted participation. When David was two-years-old, Dr.
David Reimer: the cruellest psychological experiment
Retrieved 23 September 2020— via Google Books. Ultimately, the goal of the study is to find if genetic or environmental contributions play a part in the process of defining your gender. Money aconsejó a la familia Reimer que David debía someterse a una operación de reconstrucción de una vagina artificial, y una vez acabada la operación, David debía recibir una educación acorde a su nuevo género: esto es, la educación que recibiría una niña. Retrieved 5 July 2015. However, John was pushed to behave like a girl. He thrived and was a happy, healthy little boy.
David Reimer, el experimento más polémico de la psicología
Gender socialization is thought to be a major explanation for gender differences, where children adhere to traditional gender roles from different agencies of socialization. The health care community has a long, long way to go to reduce fraud, over-treatment, mistreatment and malpractice. To conduct this study, they used the families of opposite twin pairs, along the ages of 3 and 4 to observe the gender development of each. So he was not circumcised at birth. Her twin brother developed schizophrenia. David Reimer and John Money Gender Reassignment.
David Reimer: Summary And Contradictive Experiments
Ha ejercido como psicólogo escolar y deportivo en distintas instituciones y como consultor de marketing digital para distintas empresas y start-ups, pero su verdadera vocación es la dirección de medios digitales y el desarrollo de proyectos empresariales vinculados a las nuevas tecnologías. Bielefeld, Germany: Transcript Verlag. Money claimed that childhood sexual rehearsal play was important for healthy childhood sexual exploration. Así, los preceptos que tenían que cumplir los padres eran muy sencillos: bastaba con tratar a Brenda como si fuera una niña y nunca mencionarle el asunto de su sexualidad artificial. They were both diagnosed with phimosis and referred for circumcision at the age of just seven months.
According to both brothers, Dr. John Money, David and his family could not have a normal life in adulthood. Her mother attempted suicide and her father became an alcoholic due to all of the guilt they were feeling. David Reimer had an unhappy life. He would call this sexual rehearsal play.