Criminology theory paper. Criminology: Crime Concepts and Theories 2022-10-27
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BP's mission statement is not just a set of words on paper, but rather a guiding principle that shapes the company's actions and decisions. By committing to the energy transition and reimagining energy for people and the planet, BP is working to create a more sustainable and equitable future for all.
Criminology is the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior. It is a multidisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, biology, and law, among other disciplines. Criminologists seek to understand the causes of crime and how to prevent it. To do this, they develop theories that explain why people commit crimes and how society can reduce crime. In this essay, we will explore some of the major theories in criminology and how they have been applied in the field.
One of the earliest and most influential criminology theories is the classical theory, developed by Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham in the 18th century. According to this theory, people are rational beings who weigh the costs and benefits of their actions before deciding whether to commit a crime. The key to preventing crime, therefore, is to increase the perceived costs and decrease the perceived benefits of criminal behavior. This can be done through various means, such as increasing the likelihood of being caught or increasing the severity of punishment.
Another important theory in criminology is the social disorganization theory, developed by Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay in the early 20th century. This theory posits that crime is more likely to occur in neighborhoods that are characterized by social disorganization, or a lack of social control. Factors that contribute to social disorganization include poverty, residential mobility, and ethnic heterogeneity. According to this theory, crime can be prevented by improving social organization in disadvantaged neighborhoods through initiatives such as community policing and neighborhood watch programs.
The strain theory, developed by Robert Merton in the mid-20th century, suggests that crime is more likely to occur when people feel strain or frustration due to a gap between their goals and their means of achieving those goals. This strain can be caused by various factors, such as poverty, unemployment, and discrimination. According to this theory, crime can be prevented by addressing the underlying social and economic conditions that contribute to strain.
Another influential theory in criminology is the control theory, developed by Travis Hirschi in the 1970s. This theory posits that people are less likely to commit crimes if they have strong bonds to society and a sense of self-control. Factors that contribute to strong bonds and self-control include attachment to family, involvement in religious or community activities, and commitment to education. According to this theory, crime can be prevented by strengthening people's bonds to society and helping them develop self-control.
Finally, the biosocial theory, developed in the 1980s by Adrian Raine and others, suggests that both biological and social factors contribute to criminal behavior. According to this theory, certain biological vulnerabilities, such as brain abnormalities or a high level of testosterone, can increase the likelihood of criminal behavior. However, these vulnerabilities must be combined with social factors, such as poverty or a lack of education, in order for crime to occur. This theory suggests that crime can be prevented by addressing both the biological and social factors that contribute to criminal behavior.
In conclusion, criminology theories are an important tool for understanding and preventing crime. The classical, social disorganization, strain, control, and biosocial theories are just a few of the many theories that have been developed in the field. By understanding the underlying causes of crime and developing strategies to address those causes, we can work towards a safer and more just society.
Criminology: Crime Concepts and Theories
Cesare Lombroso suggested that the actions of criminals are evolutionary and their brains are not fully developed. However, crime not only affects the victim, but also the perpetrator. Male as well as female criminal behavior should be able to be explained by the theory. The theory identifies the people who involve themselves with criminal activities due to poverty and lack of education de Looze et al. Andrews and Bonta 2010 stated that the psychology of criminal conduct can be considered a subfield of criminology and psychology due to common beliefs and common interests with both disciplines. This pattern likely caused John Gillin 1914 to make his observation, The longer the study of crime has continued in this country, the greater has grown the number of causes of crime which may be described as social. The main purpose of this paper is to consider one criminology theory or school of thought.
Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Rather, a law-abiding citizen is someone who believes that certain actions, such as stealing from a neighbor or attacking a coworker, are inconceivable. The data collected from police records have also been challenged for being political artifacts that reflect the operational logics and goals of law enforcement agencies. A second key aspect of this theory is context. There is substantial evidence that intervention is or may be the most effective method of reducing crime Cullen 2002; MacKenzie 2000. The effective deterrent is not the dread of legal penalties per se, but rather the fear of status loss Grasmick and Bursik 1990. Consistently, victimization and self-report statistics indicate that crime is concentrated in major metropolitan areas Sutherland, Cressey, and Luckenbill 1992:176—78.
Cressey, and David F. Women Prisoners: A forgotten population. The Journal of Social Psychology Integrated Theory Sexual assault is an assault which is of a sexual nature done on another person either of the same of different sex. Which allows cultural criminologist to study crime in the relation to culture and its impact on criminality. Nye emphasized the fact that families are in charge of teaching children about social ideas and in assisting them to take on rational attitudes. Theorists will notice correlations in the ways in which crime emerges in certain communities and they will base their theories of crime on these observances, though no statistical evidence is actually accumulated to verify the theory. Charles Mansion established the Mansion 'Family' towards the end of 1960 after which he became a cult leader of the group which committed many crimes such as a series of nine murder cases and conspiracy which resulted in the murder of seven people under Manson's instructions Altman, 2015.
Criminological Theory Essays: Examples, Topics, Titles, & Outlines
Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Criminology and Measuring Crime How do we know what we know? Those convicted of a crime and sentenced to prison are more likely to be indigent, unemployed, or underemployed. These theories help present a broader picture of crime rates and patterns within any given community. Cesare Lombroso suggested that the actions of criminals are evolutionary and their brains are not fully developed. Normally, psychological theories often comprise motivational, inhibiting, decision-making, and learning processes.
After half an hour, he was apprehended while at the movie theatre. These steps can be interpreted in a variety ways, but normally follow the same structure, form hypothesis, state hypothesis, collect data, review and record results or conclusion. This is an essential aspect of the theory and is a concept that makes it different to many other theories on this subject. Race The official statistics portray an arresting picture of criminal behavior by race. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. Criminal Minds The constant battle with violent crime is a perplexing problem for those designated to solve these types of problems. In addition, the UCR data collecting rules apply a judgment rule known as the hierarchy rule of classification, which sacrifices data regarding criminal episodes involving many crimes.
According to historical studies of crime in the United States, significant crime grew in the decades preceding the American Civil Conflict and continued to rise after the war. There are two types of analyses of these factors and processes in relation to crime. Of course, his mother was furious, apologized to the clerk and grounded him from playing for a week. The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud Vol. As a result, he was charged as the first-degree murderer, but he was later convicted. The criminologist Travis Hirschi created Social-control theory in 1969 and it is a variant of subcultural theory Lynch, 2000.
Criminology Theories: An Overview Free Essay Example
The theory shows the empowerment of a community could decrease criminal related activities. The positive school, which is grounded in the physical sciences, views crime as the result of personal faults or diseases. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. They also discovered that both poor neighborhood conditions and parental socialization have the same effect on 'self-control. However, this theory fails to explain why irrational persons such as those suffering from mental illnesses may commit a crime. The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K.
One view, advanced by Travis Hirschi 1969 under the umbrella of control theory, holds that criminality is the outcome of a breakdown in socialization. . Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs. It is impossible to correctly estimate the level of crime in any specific location or time period. He noticed that white-collar crimes, or crimes perpetrated by respectable and high-status individuals in the course of their employment, are prevalent while being typically overlooked in official crime statistics. Retrieved September 1, 2005, from A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Prisons are disproportionately full of Thus, while the Find a recent from the past 12 months article on the New York Times The New York Times article that I read was entitled, "From Terrorizing the Streets to Making them Safer" by Kia Gregory discusses how Dedric Hammond, age 34, a former gang member and shooter in central Harlem formerly known as "Bad News" is currently reformed and works now for a non-profit organization where he is known as a "violence interrupter.
I want to further my studies and learn about how a criminal thinks in depth and what 'criminal behaviour ' is. Age-Specific Arrest Rates and Race-Specific Arrest Rates for Selected Offenses 1993—2001. His theory was based on the fact that people are in control of their own fate. Criminal theories of 'subcultures' suggest a more complex system of social esteem and reward provided by crime. Class has and will always be a determinant of a society because of the beliefs that come with it.
Most urban settings are surrounded by low-income neighborhoods, the underprivileged ones. Accessed December 30, 2022. Easton, PA: American Academy of Medicine Press. High-crime neighborhoods typically have higher-than-average percentages of poverty, rental and abandoned properties, single-parent households, and population mobility, all of which impede the organization of the community to prevent crime. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. The street code proposes developing an approach to understanding the youth's violence, especially in risky neighborhoods.