Compare three theories of personality development. 3 Theories of Personality Development and How to Apply Them 2022-11-09
Compare three theories of personality development
Personality development refers to the way in which an individual's personality emerges and changes over the course of their lifetime. There are many theories that have been proposed to explain personality development, and in this essay, we will compare three of the most influential and widely studied theories: psychoanalytic theory, humanistic theory, and social cognitive theory.
Psychoanalytic theory, developed by Sigmund Freud, emphasizes the role of unconscious thoughts and desires in shaping personality. According to Freud, personality is made up of three main components: the id, ego, and superego. The id is the unconscious, primal part of the personality that seeks immediate gratification of its desires and impulses. The ego is the rational, logical part of the personality that mediates between the id and the outside world. The superego is the moral component of the personality that internalizes societal rules and values. Freud believed that the interplay between these three components is what drives personality development, and that conflicts between them can lead to psychological issues such as neurosis.
Humanistic theory, developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, takes a more positive view of personality development. This theory emphasizes the individual's innate drive towards self-actualization, or the realization of one's full potential. According to humanistic theory, people are naturally motivated to grow and develop, and the key to healthy personality development is the ability to be self-aware and self-accepting. Maslow and Rogers believed that individuals need to have their basic needs met and feel a sense of belonging and self-esteem in order to fully realize their potential.
Social cognitive theory, developed by Albert Bandura, focuses on the role of social influences and learning in personality development. This theory emphasizes the importance of observing and imitating others, as well as the influence of cognitive processes such as attention, perception, and memory. According to social cognitive theory, personality is shaped by the interactions an individual has with their environment and the mental processes they use to make sense of those interactions.
In conclusion, these three theories of personality development offer different perspectives on the factors that shape an individual's personality. Psychoanalytic theory focuses on unconscious drives and conflicts, humanistic theory emphasizes self-actualization and self-acceptance, and social cognitive theory highlights the role of social influences and learning. While each of these theories has its own unique insights, they can also be seen as complementary, with each contributing to our understanding of personality development.
Compare And Contrast Personality And Humanistic Theories...
The id always seeks pleasure. Structuralist personality theory personality structure According to this model personality, it consists of id, ego, superego. The paper should be at least seven pages double spaced; although, you will probably need to go beyond seven pages to explain all aspects of your theory. Children ought to learn to take pride in their work through well cultivated attitudes. These rewards and punishments occur as a consequence of their actions the basis of operant conditioning. For example, intelligence, temperament, habits, skills, attitudes, and traits.
The Psychology of Personality Formation
They do this in two ways by submitting oneself to the power of others through passive compliance or by becoming an authority oneself. Freud saw personality development tied to development of sexual instinct libido which passes through stages. He was especially interested in the characteristics of people whom he considered to have achieved their potential as individuals. The individual assumes responsibility and the conflicts at the phallic stage have been solved through socialization. The third is the phallic stage occurring at between age three to six.
Comparison of three different Developmental Theories
It is the development phase in which the features gained in previous periods are reinforced. Freud believed that our early experiences formed the solid foundations on which we would form the structure of our life and that the adult personality is indeed formed in childhood according to the situations, treatment and feelings experienced as a child. Some psychoanalysts who followed Freud, embracing his core ideas about personality, soon took issue with some aspects of his theory. The explanations given are convincing and can be used in guiding the general development of the child from the formative stages. The last is the genital stage which sets off at puberty to 18 and beyond. Some people consider these two views incompatible and want to know which one is right; others consider the two views complementary and want to know which process operates when, and why.
Theories of Personality
Humans have an ideal self, or who we would like to be, and a real self, or who we actually are. Cognitive theories of personality are both nomothetic and idiographic. This argument stimulated the field of personality research to elucidate the interaction of the person within the situation as opposed to focusing on person variables. In the early stages of life, a child tends to emotionally attach to the mother because of the influence the mother has on it. The idiographic view assumes that each person has a unique psychological structure and that some traits are possessed by only one person; and that there are times when it is impossible to compare one person with others. This interactionist approach may, therefore, be much more valid than either a biological or environmental theory alone. His work and theories have helped shape our views of personality, levels of consciousness and unconsciousness mind, the structure of personality and the development of personality.
Comparing the Main Theories of Personality Development
Despair Wisdom Each of the eight stages shows what a person gains throughout each stage in their lives form birth all the way through adulthood. Even though these theories are to evaluate human minds they have different views in how the mind works. To this extent, the behavioural theory is very deterministic. Mistrust is the first crisis which can develop into depression in children and paranoia in adults. Indeed, it was not until the late 1800s that scientific methods were began to be applied to questions that had puzzled philosophers for centuries.
3 Theories of Personality Development and How to Apply Them
This might help to explain why some people are more resistant to changing their prejudiced views. The child achieves class inclusion, mental representation and has concrete operation as well as reversibility. In this case, the two theories believe that there is a compelling force behind the behaviour of an organism, other that the organism itself. The idiographic goal is to find ways to study all of the differences and variations that we can find in human personality. Ultimately, Cattell identified Then, he separated them into source and surface traits, which are respectively harder and easier to detect, but respectively more and less important to describing personality. Heider developed the notion of phenomenal causality, which is the perception of causality that leads to judgment and action. In A textbook of human psychology pp.
Comparing and Contrasting Two Theories of Personality: Psychoanalytical Theory vs. Behavioral Theory
In this case, the behaviourist is not concerned a lot about the unconscious Skinner 1984, p. Developed by norms and values of society, it is divided into two sub-components, the conscience, acquired by punishment, and ego-ideal, approval and reward. Each perspective describes in detail what helps compare and contrast individuals to one another. The first stage is the oral stage, which is the main function of newborns. In addition, they also help us to predict how we react to problems, situations, and other people Gazzaniga 2010.
Compare And Contrast The Theories Of Personality
In addition, behaviourists contend that antecedent events can be used as a way of predicting behaviors, in spite of the invisible activities taking place. But the trend now in psychology is away from the grand theory that explains everything and toward small-scale theories that relate to a limited area of behavior and generate precise and testable hypotheses. It makes realistic decisions and helps offset the pleasure principle in an acceptable manner to the outside world. Nomothetic theorists have demarcated dimensions of individual difference such as cognitive styles. A mental agency comprising everything inherited as Freud believes babies are "bundles of id" the other two develop later. Early psychologists explained the Instinct Theory as motivation driven by behaviour like animal behaviour — all thoughts and behaviour were the result of inherited instincts, modifiable by learning and experience reference: William McDougall: Social Psychology 1908.