Cancer research paper. Prostate Cancer Research Paper 2022-10-29
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Cancer is a devastating disease that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body. There are many different types of cancer, and each one has its own set of unique characteristics and treatment options. In recent years, there have been significant advances in cancer research, which have led to the development of new treatments and therapies that have helped to improve the prognosis for many cancer patients.
One of the key areas of cancer research is understanding the underlying causes of the disease. Scientists are working to identify the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of cancer, as well as the molecular pathways that drive the growth and spread of cancer cells. This research is critical for the development of targeted therapies that can specifically attack cancer cells while leaving normal cells unharmed.
Another important aspect of cancer research is the development of new and more effective treatments. In the past, the main treatments for cancer were surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. While these treatments can be effective, they can also have significant side effects, and they are not always successful in eliminating the cancer. Today, researchers are developing a wide range of new treatments, including immunotherapies, which harness the power of the immune system to fight cancer, and targeted therapies, which use drugs or other agents to specifically target cancer cells.
One of the most promising areas of cancer research is the use of personalized medicine. This approach involves the use of genetic and other information about an individual's cancer to tailor treatment to their specific needs. For example, researchers may use genetic testing to identify specific genetic mutations in a person's cancer cells, which can then be targeted with specific drugs. This approach has the potential to significantly improve treatment outcomes for cancer patients.
In conclusion, cancer research is an important and ongoing field of study that is making significant progress in understanding and treating this devastating disease. From identifying the underlying causes of cancer to developing new and more effective treatments, the research being conducted today is helping to improve the lives of cancer patients around the world.
Prostate Cancer Research Paper
Some cancers may well be preventable by vaccination with tumor-specific antigens or by some less specific immunostimulation. Answers to this challenge remain elusive. The most important property of these transformed cells is that if these cells are injected into an animal of the same species, they form tumors in them. Research Paper Telomerase Enzyme: With every cell division, the telomere at the end of chromosome is shortened which ultimately cause cell death. Studies have also failed to demonstrate any consistent association with herpes simplex viruses. Family member proteins of Bcl-2 are anti-apoptotic molecules, which are known to be over showed in the majority of cancers including pancreatic cancers. Early analyses failed to take into account tumor heterogeneity, combining all cancers as if they were the same, the majority of those being nonaggressive.
Cancer Incidence and Mortality in New Jersey. Table 2 shows approximate percentages of future cancer deaths in the United States that would be avoided by successively removing the effects of smoking, known infections, alcohol, current occupational and environmental pollution, inactivity, and obesity. Antibodies flow in the body until they get and adhere to the antigen. For many years, the earmark of medical cancer treatment has been endovenous cytotoxic chemotherapy. Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly fashion.
Without rigorous efforts to identify risk factors for aggressive cancer and distinguish tigers from pussycats, progress in our understanding of prostate cancer will continue to be slow. Reviews have concluded that virtually all studies had been deficient in their handling of bias that could account for the modest risks observed in the positive studies. Family History And Genetic Factors Having a first-degree relative with prostate cancer incurs a twofold to threefold risk and this increases with the number of relatives affected and earlier age at diagnosis. This natural death is called apoptosis. Colorectal cancer risk is also increased by certain.
For instance, Gossypol is a natural substance that was drawn out from cotton seed in the year 1915. The development of cancers of the testis and prostate may also depend on hormonal effects, but apart from the increased risk in an undescended testis, no behavioral or reproductive correlate is strongly predictive of these diseases. The protein made by both these genes is tyrosine kinase. Many viral oncogenes have cellular counterparts. A patient diagnosed with cancer suffers different symptoms like coughing, shortness of breath, diarrhea, constipation, and blood in the stool. Rare symptoms comprise persistent changes to the breast, such as thickening, distortion, swelling, tenderness, redness, skin irritation and nipple abnormalities, such as retraction, ulceration, or spontaneous discharge.
Approximately 30% of Gleason sum 7 tumors have a primary focus of grade 4 and these are considered to be more aggressive than those having a primary focus of grade 3. Viruses usually act synergistically with other carcinogens and therefore provide alternative approaches to risk reduction. There are two major types of targeted therapy including small molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies David. Have they ever thought of how it even started? Journal of Cell Biochemistry 91 3 : 553—571. This has been studied most extensively for breast cancer. Check through the topics and choose the ones that you are comfortable with. These chromosomes also undergo extensive translocations.
Inhaling of asbestos dust, coal tar fumes are carcinogen. These observations are consistent with an inherited genetic predisposition. Alterations within the specific genes cause it. Occupation Although a large literature exists on occupational associations with prostate cancer, very little has been firmly established. Rigorous reviews and meta analyses have concluded that the risk associated with dairy foods, if any, is very small. Antibodies specifically deliver cytotoxic substances to cancer cells. They develop properties of continued proliferation.
The mutations make oncogenes excessively active in cell division. A region on chromosome 8q found in Icelandic families has been replicated in two other studies and may contribute to increased risk for African-Americans Amundadottir et al. Women in most Western countries began smoking later than men and fewer have stopped, so their lung cancer rates are either still increasing or falling less rapidly. The Western diet is associated both with earlier age at menarche and with postmenopausal obesity, which increases endogenous estrogen production. A different susceptible minority will be identified for each disease, and a high proportion of the population may eventually suffer the consequences of being classed as genetically susceptible to some major risk.
Genes that control cell division undergo mutation which leads to uncontrolled cell division, which leads to formation of tumors. Colon and Rectum Cancer Colorectal cancer incidence and Mortality rates have been declining over the past two decades. They include cervical, breast, skin and brain cancers. These drugs aim at cells that are dividing fast, including cancer cells, as well as some normal tissues. The growth and cell division are subject to a multitude of different types of controls. Summary: Cancer is a genetic disease.
They have one thing in common: the uncontrolled division of cells of an organ or tissue. Most reports conclude that about one-third of cancer deaths might be avoidable by dietary change. The remarkable features are the huge differences in incidence and minor differences in mortality. Genomewide Studies Complete genetic information on cancer patients and healthy controls will ultimately require sequencing of the whole genome in many thousands of individuals. Biopsy of tumor lump is done. This disease cheats innocent people of the life they deserve. Screening, to be effective, requires a cheap, sensitive, and specific test, a good understanding of the natural history to identify a curable early form of the disease, and good evidence that treatment of this form of disease reduces mortality by comparison with treatment of disease diagnosed in the ordinary way at the onset of symptoms.