In the early twentieth century, teachers of public speaking sought to distinguish their disciple from English by focusing on spoken communication and calling their discipline- speech. The printing press made written information available to common people. Most charged fees for their services. Plato viewed the sophists and their ideas as harmful influences in Athens, and he sought to discredit them. Thus, although the discipline has a long history and deep roots in Western Civilization, it has evolved slowly, has traveled under a variety of labels, and only recently has acquired its current name.
Definition Begins from premises of audience Term Social Sciences research is recognized for? Most sophists were foreigners in Athens, ambassadors or traveling teachers from other cities. Was an Anglican archbishop of Dublin, Ireland but was particularly interested in the use of reason in persuasion. At the core of his theory is his recognition that, in daily life, argument does not occur as a single message that either does or does not meet Wheatley's prescribed standards. Reversing the position taken by Aquinas and Maimonides, and directly countering Plato, he viewed logic as a tool of rhetoric. Definition Kurt Lewin's beliefs that social environment influences behavior Term What is Paul Lazarfeld remembered for? They adopted the sophists' teaching arete, aiming to provide students with the communication skills they needed to function as effective citizens in both public and private life. His approach to studying human behavior combined humanistic and scientific perspectives. Cicero suggested that oratory has three practical objectives-to instruct, to please, and to win over- all of which were vital to functioning as a citizen in a Roman republic.
The changes in communication brought by the invention of printing were profound. In 1942, Hovland directed an experimental research program working with Paul Larzarsfield, their research team examined the effects of persuasive messages, source credibility, and fear appeals on solider's knowledgeable and attitudes. Believing it important to understand how everyday decisions are made, he developed an approach to the study of argumentation that, instead of prescribing how people should argue, describes how they actually do argue. A book with obvious wear. He has signed Radarick no part in the pursuit of probable truth for decision making, as Aristotle have advocated, but he did suggest that knowledge of rhetoric can be helpful in accurately interpreting scripture. Sophists believed that all reasonably intelligent persons can become knowledgeable and acquire the skills to speak well.
Aristotle studied, taught, and wrote about literally every subject known to the ancient Greeks. Term The basis of American thinking esp. Augustine borrowed Plato's stance, suggesting that rhetoric can be used to help in part truths that are already known. Thus he argued, if honorable men are well armed with rhetorical skills, they should always be able to prevail over the advocates a falsehood. Discussions of methods are balanced, including quantitative and qualitative social science, and modern and postmodern critical approaches.
Definition Specific claims based on observation combined with known universal principles to draw conclusions Term Plato: Persuasion is both logical and psychological through what 3 appeals? The Chicago school scholars' more qualitative approach provided a methodological foundation for Erving Goffman. Definition Empirical research to find whether logical relationships exist in the real world and whether hypothesis are supported by data. Since decisions about laws in Rome were influenced by speeches in the assembly and Senate, the subject of rhetoric was of practical interest. These scholars built their study and a coherent curriculum on a foundation of classical rhetorical theory, primarily upon the work of Aristotle. He objected to the sophists teaching of rhetoric on the grounds of a favor and style over substance and valued technique more than truth. Cards Term What are 2 purposes for communication? The fundamental elements of argument include: data, claim, and warrant. According to Aristotle, truth is all around in the environment and is to be taken through the senses.
Definition By reasoning logically about relationships among factors that contribute to a human phenomenon Term How does Dues define Theory? They called this subject rhetoric. Aristotle saw at rhetoric can be used to promote either falsehood or truth and he concluded and it is the duty of honorable citizens to arm themselves with knowledge and skill in rhetoric in order to defend your truth. Definition Survey and market research; Media effects Term What was the Chicago School? Definition Dilemma whether Truth must be educed or drawn out of students by asking challenging questions or if it is something to be capitalized on using rhetoric sensitivity and skill Term Plato's shadow prompts us to be. Definition Learned and wise men whostudied and taught persuasive public speaking andwere poets and teachers Term What is Plato remembered for? Led by the Chicago school in the 1920s, sociological research shifted towards quantitative approaches, and, by the 1930s, the discipline of sociology what is committed to empirical social science. . Definition Human behavior as a function of interpersonal communication Term What is Frued remembered for in communication? He did not distinguish between good and bad sophists; and painted them all at the same dark brush.
Lasswell examined propaganda, the power of symbols, and public opinion. Kurt Lewin, and German gestalt psychologist who fled to America from Hitler's regime in the late 1930s, is known for his research on small group processes. Among these effects was the fact that memory became obsolete and was largely ignored by rhetorical scholars thereafter. Quantitative research translates human behavior into numerical terms, which enable them to draw conclusions about people in general. Definition Linear: source, message, channel, receiver Term What is Wilbur Schramm remembered for? Prior to the printing press, books were copied by hand and were very expensive.
With a wise and benevolent ruler, tyranny can be tolerable; with a bad tyrant, it is terribly oppressive. Definition logic progression Term What is Pathos? He was highly influenced by Plato's writings but believed rhetoric should focus on less weighty issues. Comprehending highly complex events The power of mass political communication to shape national attitudes generated an abundance of propaganda research, led by Harold Lasswell. Augustine struggled with the place I was rhetorical education in his life as a Christian. The binding may be slightly damaged but integrity is still intact.