Bone physiology and bone remodeling cycle. Osteoporosis Case Review Flashcards 2022-10-21
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Physiological Bone Remodeling: Systemic Regulation and Growth Factor Involvement
J Bone Miner Res. Stimulatory effect of growth hormone on bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. The role of BMP-7 in chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro. Furthermore, phosphorylated Smad3 physically complexes with Runx2. It is believed that calcitonin does not play a prominent role in calcium homeostasis in adults, but it may be more critical in skeletal development. Short-term BMP-2 expression is sufficient for in vivo osteochondral differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.
What is bone physiology and the bone remodeling cycle?
Identification of differentially expressed genes between osteoblasts and osteocytes. Nat Commun 5: 5215, 2014. Modeling is defined as change in the size or shape of skeletal elements that occurs when formation and resorption are independent, e. Endocrinology 138: 4456—4462, 1997. J Bone Miner Res 22: 1329—1337, 2007. What are the four steps of bone repair quizlet? Biochem Biophys Res Commun 314: 409—414, 2004.
Endocrinology 151: 4613—4625, 2010. It is followed by the reversal phase that is characterized by disappearance of almost all osteoclasts. In the resorption phase, osteoblasts respond to signals generated by osteocytes or direct endocrine activation signals, recruiting osteoclast precursors to the remodeling site. Osteoporosis is when osteoclasts are breaking down bones faster than the osteoblasts can make them. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 1: 317—329, 2000.
Distinct modes of inhibition by sclerostin on bone morphogenetic protein and Wnt signaling pathways. Epidermal growth factor receptor plays an anabolic role in bone metabolism in vivo. Cbfa1-independent decrease in osteoblast proliferation, osteopenia, and persistent embryonic eye vascularization in mice deficient in Lrp5, a Wnt coreceptor. It begins in fetal life and continues until skeletal maturity i. N Engl J Med 332: 305—311, 1995. Regular weight bearing exercises like walking, running, and dancing will help to strengthen the bones. A major culprit of this disease is a decrease in estrogen.
Bone Physiology: Bone Cells, Modeling, and Remodeling
Paget Disease Paget disease is a condition of disorganized bone resorption patterns due to abnormal activation of osteoclasts. The breaking down and rebuilding of the bones is what is responsible for healthy bones. In the normal bone cycle, the osteoclasts form new bone by producing collagen matrix. The remodeling cycle is composed of six sequential phases, namely, quiescence, activation, resorption, reversal, formation, and termination. Bisphosphonates for example, alendronate : These medications inhibit bone resorption by attaching to hydroxyapatite binding sites, so when the osteoclast begins to resorb bone that has bisphosphonates attached to it, this impedes the osteoclast from developing the ruffled border. Is bone remodeling painful? It is speculated that the decrease in osteoblast function may be due to decreased synthesis or inhibition of local growth factors.
J Cell Biol 132: 195—210, 1996. Estrogen An estrogen deficiency leads to increased bone remodeling, where bone resorption outpaces bone formation and decreases bone mass. J Bone Miner Res 26: 19—26, 2011. The effects of programmed administration of human parathyroid hormone fragment 1—34 on bone histomorphometry and serum chemistry in rats. Raloxifene:Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator SERM ,with agonist activity in bone and antagonist activity in other tissues, such as breast tissue. Compr Ther 16: 36—42, 1990. The bone remodelling cycle replaces old and damaged bone and is a highly regulated, lifelong process essential for preserving bone integrity and maintaining mineral homeostasis.
This affects the osteoclast's ability to adhere to the bone surface and produce the protons required for this task. The matrix is affected in osteoporosis because not as much is being produced when the bone is being made. Time-dependent effects of parathyroid hormone and prostaglandin E2 on DNA synthesis by periosteal cells from embryonic chick calvaria. Effects of androgens on subpopulations of the human osteosarcoma cell line SaOS2. Bone 15: 563—576, 1994.
Describe bone physiology and the bone remodeling cycle?
PTH elevates cAMP levels and inhibits Mef2-stimulated Sost promoter activity, leading to decreased expression of sclerostin and an elevated bone formation rate. Estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha impinges on the estrogen axis in bone: potential function in osteoporosis. Activation precedes resorption, which precedes reversal, with mineralization as the last step. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta have similar activities in multiple endothelial cell pathways.
Increased bone formation by prevention of osteoblast apoptosis with parathyroid hormone. Studies on the mechanisms of the skeletal anabolic action of endogenous and exogenous parathyroid hormone. The ternary IGF complex influences postnatal bone acquisition and the skeletal response to intermittent parathyroid hormone. A cloned porcine renal calcitonin receptor couples to adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. Spared bone mass in rats treated with thyroid hormone receptor TR beta-selective compound GC-1.