Athena, the goddess of wisdom, war, and crafts, was a powerful force in Greek mythology. She was known for her bravery and cunning, and was often called upon to defend the gods and mortals alike. One of the most famous stories of Athena's bravery is her battle against Alkyoneos, a giant who terrorized the people of the island of Thrake.
According to the myth, Alkyoneos was the son of the giant Orion and the goddess Eos. He was a giant of great strength and size, and was known for his brutal attacks on the people of Thrake. The people of the island lived in fear of Alkyoneos, and many of them had been killed or taken as slaves by the giant.
Despite the danger, Athena decided to take on Alkyoneos and defend the people of Thrake. She knew that she would need all of her wisdom and strength to defeat the giant, and so she prepared for battle. Athena donned her armor and took up her shield and spear, and set out to face Alkyoneos.
The battle between Athena and Alkyoneos was fierce and intense, with both sides fighting with all their might. Athena was a skilled warrior, and she used her shield and spear to defend herself against the giant's attacks. Despite his size and strength, Alkyoneos was no match for the goddess, and Athena was able to defeat him with ease.
After the battle was over, Athena returned to Thrake as a hero. The people of the island rejoiced at her victory, and they praised her for her bravery and strength. Athena was hailed as a protector of the people, and her victory over Alkyoneos was remembered for generations to come.
In conclusion, Athena's battle against Alkyoneos is a testament to her strength and bravery. She stood up for the people of Thrake and protected them from the giant's attacks, showing that she was not just a goddess of wisdom and war, but also a protector of the people.
Greek Art & Architecture: Hellenistic Architecture: Pergamon
The long winding strands surround his face like snakes. Also, the Parthenon was constructed shortly after the Athenian victory over the Persians in the 5th century, so it could also represent the defeat of barbarians like the Altar of Zeus. These were matchless in the bulk of their bodies and invincible in their might; terrible of aspect did they appear, with long locks drooping from their head and chin, and with the scales of dragons for feet. Detail of the north frieze showing the god Apollo and goddess Artemis advancing towards a fleeing giant, Siphnian Treasury, c. Paul Getty Museum: Volume 2. From myth to reality: the Pergamon Altar as a victory monument Prior to the construction of the Altar, the first king of Pergamon, Attalos I, set up monuments to commemorate his victory over the Gauls and legitimize his rule.
Similarly, were the figures of giants on the Altar meant to evoke the enemies of Pergamon—the Gauls and the Macedonians? The giants from the Zeus panel are rendered from three distinct perspectives. His face, with its wrinkled brow and open mouth, exaggerates his suffering. Gardener's Art Through the Ages. Following the Persian wars 545—448 B. North side of grand staircase, Pergamon Altar photo: The sides of the altar As visitors continued along either side of the Altar they encountered gods and goddesses thematically assembled for example, the twin gods Apollo and Artemis with their mother Leto. Just as impressive as their dynamic poses, these two panels depict a diversity of giant types—from human to animal. Despite the immense number of figures on the frieze, each panel manages to offer new discoveries for its viewers.
Note: These citations are programmatically generated and may be incomplete. It was also intended to connect the Altar of Zeus Chicago citation style Unknown Artist. One of the most recognized examples of the gigantomachy, on the east metopes of the Parthenon 447—438 B. The first and larger frieze is devoted to a battle between gods and giants, the gods being the full height of the relief slabs and the giants even bigger, only their huge menacing torsos being visible. The Athenian gold and ivory pediment see a reconstruction drawing of it On the Parthenon, the Athenians used myths to provide commentaries on their contemporary reality. His supplication is supported by his mother Ge or Gaia , the earth, whose upper body appears; both hands are lifted to Athena. They depict events from the life of Telephus, legendary founder of the city of Pergamon and son of the hero Heracles and Auge, one of Tegean king Aleus's daughters.
A second, furthest from Zeus, shows us his muscular back, buttocks, and serpentine legs as he turns toward the god with his bearded face in profile. From left to right, figures associated with water: Nereus and Doris, Oceanos, and part of Tethys? Deep cutting and under-cutting produce strong contrasts of light and dark which heighten the drama. The Pergamon Altar, as a whole, depicts the mythological war between the gods of Olympus against giants. Like in other scenes, the dying giant writhes in agony and his face is a mask of pain. Athena grabs the hair of the giant as Nike the goddess of Victory flies down to crown the goddess victorious. Left: Wounded Gaul from the monument of Attalos I Roman copy, c.
Unlike the Classical version, however, Pergamon's reveled in melodrama. A few, besides, are even more overtly animal-like, almost monstrous. This mythical battle between pre-Greek Giants and Greek Olympians recurs in Hellenistic art partly as a result of renewed threats to Greek supremacy. The cattle shown on the sixth century pots, might thus represent either Alcyoneus' cattle stolen from Helios, or Heracles' cattle taken from Geryon. The Altar of Zeus at Pergamon was one of several examples of monumental architecture which the Attalids relied upon to achieve their spiritual and political goals. Giants kneel further to the right.
Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon (video)
The frieze was sculpted out of white marble by multiple artists in Pergamum, Turkey during the ancient Greek Hellenistic period in 175 B. Today, all sense of coulour on the frieze has been lost and only the hard white marble remains. Athena battling Alkyoneos, detail from the Altar of Zeus Frieze. During this time, the city of Pergamon was embellished with two important monuments commemorating the defeat of invading Gauls: a statuary group set up on the city's acropolis, and a massive Ionic altar with a frieze showing the battle of the gods and giants. The emotional faces and often contorted figures are exemplary of Hellenistic sculpture.
Athena Battling Alkyoneos frieze is a snapshot of agony, victory, violence,and beauty
Staatliche Museen, Berlin The armored giants in the frieze evoke comparison with another contemporary adversary. While the stepped platform made it possible to access the frieze up close, this would only have placed viewers in uncomfortable proximity to the immortal skirmish. The barbaric giants, decisively defeated by the Olympian gods and assisted by Greek heroes, served as an appropriate visual metaphor for the Persians, who had desecrated the sacred sites of Greece including the Athenian Acropolis. And on some of the pots Alcyoneus is apparently sleeping, with a winged The presence of cattle on several of the pots suggests that the story also involved cattle in some way e. Pergamon and the Hellenistic Kingdoms of the Ancient World New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2016 Lucilla Burn, Hellenistic Art: From Alexander the Great to Augustus London: British Museum Press, 2004 R. The gigantomachy, meaning a war of giants, particularly the fabulous war of the giants against heaven , was chosen for the Altar of Zeus as a metaphor for the Pergamene victory over the Gauls in Asia Minor. Schraudolph San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, 1996-1997 , pp.
Athena battling Alkyoneos, detail from the Altar of Zeus Frieze
Notably, the earth goddess is the only figure to be identified with an inscription on the frieze itself rather than above or below, as with the other gods and giants emphasizing her role as an intermediary. The shield of the trampled giant is adorned with a starburst, a common emblem of the Macedonians. The gods are generally portrayed above the giants; the giants have shed the majority of their hoplite armor in favor of donning animal skins and wielding rocks or clubs, which connect them to the natural world. In the late 1990s, the Altar was part of a conversation about the repatriation of Turkish heritage. Hornblower, Simon and Spawforth, Antony.
Compare the thick, curly, wild locks of hair of the Wounded Gaul in the Louvre to that of a giant from the Zeus panel. Rhythmic sense is felt very strongly a plastic rhythm so compelling that the individual figures and complex groups are all fused into a single system of correspondences throughout the whole design. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. In comparison to other Hellenistic kingdoms kingdoms formed after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B. On the Altar, a giant could be fully humanized, and even wear armor.