Administration of delhi sultanate. The Administrative System under Delhi Sultanate 2022-11-02
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The Central Administration of the Delhi Sultanate
Several types of tankas were issued by Iltutmish. There was 5 per cent tax on the sale and purchase of horses. The third distinguishing element was that the Sultan monarchs ruled over an Islamic or theocratic realm. In the administrative system Wazir had direct access to the Sultan and the position of the Sultan depended greatly on the Wisdom, sincerity and loyalty of the Wazir. The Mongols came and encamped near Delhi. Very often, only one man was appointed to carry on the works of both the departments of the religious endowment and charity and the department of justice.
Iqta means part or share of a land and land revenue given to a person by the ruler, the Sultan. Later on it became restricted to a smaller oligarchy and at last to the members of the royal family only. He also paid the grants of subsistence allowances to scholars and men of piety. In addition to the royal road from Peshawar to Sonargaon, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq built a road to Daulatabad. The landowners were known as Iqtadars.
Government and Administration under the Delhi Sultanate
Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq while lessened the rigours of the revenue policy and administration of the time of Ala-ud-din Khalji, did not reduce the revenue demand of the state which continued to remain one half of the gross produce of the soil. The defeat of the Rajputs ended their supremacy in northern India and gave way for the Turkish rulers to establish themselves under the Delhi sultanate. The dabir-i-khas was also the confidential clerk of the state. Ministers: At the top of the civil government was the wazir who under weak Sultan enjoyed almost unlimited authority. But in view of the importance of the armed forces, the Sultan himself would look after the organisation and upkeep of the army. Mushrif was assisted by a nazir and mustafi by a waquf.
Thus the muqtis were the governors of their respective jurisdictions and enjoyed great powers. The administration under the Delhi Sultanate was segregated into various parts — Central, Provincial, Judicial, Local, etc. The main work of the people of this group, Ulema, was to manage religious matters and interpret religious regulations for Sultan. Another minister was barid-i-mumalik who was the head of the state news agency. Social System of Delhi Sultanate The social structure did not witness any major alterations under the administration of Delhi Sultanate. Under Muhammad bin Tughluq the defence of the north-west frontier became so lax that the Mongols easily reached the vicinity of Delhi and surprised the Sultan. Every soldier was responsible to improve his talents as he desired.
Administration Under Delhi Sultanate: Medieval History for UPSC
Walk through the points elaborating on the provincial administration of Delhi sultanate. Numerous developments took place during the reign of the Sultans. The major cities that were created under the Administration of Delhi Sultanate are Delhi, Jaunpur, Daulatabad, Kara, Lakhnauti, Multan, Lahore, Anhilwara, Broach, Cambay. It was an indigenous style which had developed there even before the coming of the Muslims and the buildings of the Muslim conquerors bear unmistakable influence of that style. Raja Man Singh of Gwalior was a great patron of music and encouraged the composition of the great work on music called Man Kautuhal.
In 1324 when prince Jauna Khan, later Muhammad bin Tughluq, was absent in the Deccan, the Mongols invaded Northern India but were thoroughly defeated and their leader captured and brought to Delhi. The nobles were assigned jagirs by the Sultan to maintain them while provincial governors met their expenses out of income of their Iqtas. While in the Delhi architecture Islamic influences predominated, the styles of architecture in provinces had their local variations. But it seems that the muqti appointed his own troops, keeping a naib ariz at the centre to represent him. He had both original and appellate jurisdiction.
It was after noticing that the Mongols had marched near Delhi unhindered that Ala- ud-din took measures to protect the north-west frontier against future raids by the Mongols. There was a strict caste system in place. There was no regular course of training for these soldiers. Medieval age was the age of faith in religion. He was the commander-in-chief of the army as well. Land given in gift as inam or waqf were free from assessment of revenue and allowed to become hereditary possessions of the grantees.
These defensive measures were, however, not sufficient to prevent the Mongols from making repeated raids but the effect of these measures could be seen in the defeat of the Mongol raiders every time they invaded India. Secondly the Sultan usually behaved like a despot. The administration under Delhi Sultanate was very systematic. Defence Against the Mongols: We have seen in the preceding section how the Mongol meance pursued the Delhi Sultanate from the early days of the Sultanate. Slaves were generally bought for domestic service, for company or for their special skills. There was a vazir, a ariz and a qazi in each Iqta.
The capital of the Sultanate was Delhi and it was expanded to the great part of the Indian Subcontinent. Different Sultans improved the organisation of their army and methods of warfare. These vassals were required to pay Kharaj or land revenue and also the Jizyas. Besides, he controlled them through various measures. Before 1000 AD India was ruled by the Hindu and Buddhist kingdom. During his rule, he fought many prominent battles which also included the two battle of Tarain. The iqta system which was intended to be a centripetal force tended to degenerate into a centrifugal force, threatening disintegration and decentralisation of the central authority.
Zia-ud-din Barani was the most celebrated historian of the period and contemporary of Muhammad bin Tughluq. The three architectural styles that were prominent in that time period were Delhi or Imperial style, the Provincial style, and the Hindu architectural style. In one part comprising Multan, Sind and Lahore, he placed Prince Muhammad and in the other comprising province of Sunam and Samana he placed his second son Bughra Khan. Some works on Yoga, Vaiseshika and Nyaya philosophy were produced during this period. They also established institutions of Muslim learning at places like Delhi, Jullundur, Firuzabad, etc. Fine wood-carvings, delicate stone lattices and ornamental decorations are the effects of this influence.