The Ninth Five Year Plan was a socio-economic development plan implemented in India from 1997 to 2002. It was the last Five Year Plan of the 20th century and the penultimate plan to be implemented before the country switched to a new planning system with the adoption of the National Development Agenda in 2002.
The Ninth Five Year Plan focused on the theme of "Quickening the Pace of Growth". The plan aimed to achieve an annual rate of growth of 7% in the gross domestic product (GDP) and to reduce poverty by at least 5% per year. To achieve these goals, the plan prioritized the development of infrastructure, such as roads, ports, and telecommunications, as well as the promotion of industry and agriculture.
One of the key strategies of the Ninth Five Year Plan was to liberalize and deregulate the economy, which had been highly controlled by the government in the past. This included the privatization of state-owned enterprises and the removal of barriers to foreign investment. The plan also focused on improving the business environment by simplifying regulations and streamlining bureaucracy.
The Ninth Five Year Plan also placed a strong emphasis on social sector development, with a focus on education, health, and employment. The plan aimed to increase access to education and improve the quality of education, particularly in rural areas. It also aimed to provide basic health services to all citizens and to reduce maternal and infant mortality rates. The plan also targeted the creation of employment opportunities, particularly for disadvantaged groups such as women and minorities.
Overall, the Ninth Five Year Plan was successful in achieving many of its goals. The economy grew at an annual rate of around 6% during the plan period, and poverty reduction targets were met or exceeded. The plan also contributed to significant improvements in infrastructure and the business environment, which laid the foundation for further economic growth in the future. However, the plan was also criticized for not addressing certain structural issues, such as income inequality and environmental degradation, which continue to be major challenges in India today.
There is considerable variance in the interpretation of this term. Areas of Special Importance for State Intervention 1. The Plan did not achieve the target of investment. Total investment in fixed assets during this time hit 3. It is necessary therefore for states to operate in a spirit of cooperative federalism and to arrive at a set of public policy and action in which state-level initiatives at attracting private investment in a competitive manner will be acceptable, and those in which a common position would be taken by all states in their collective interest. It was found that the work opportunities generated along this growth path were such that the unemployment rate would actually increase from 1.
Ninth Five Year Plan in India: Objectives and Targets
Learn about poverty, poverty law, its causes and consequences. The production fixed assets in the national economy increased by 40%. Growth and development are intimately related to the level of economic integration of the various parts of the country and the linkages that are formed between the backward and the more developed regions. A large range of work has been completed on the implementation of a computer control system for various purposes and computer centers. Savings deposit balances in urban and rural areas reached 3 trillion yuan, 2 trillion higher than at the end of the previous planning period. Government will seek active partnership with the voluntary sector in organising and promoting these institutions. Détente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan.
The Chinese government has ordered more than 2,000 factories in 18 different sectors to shut down for inefficient and polluting industrial capacity. Chapter 4- Employment Perspective 5. Moreover, as has been indicated, the Indian economy is still vulnerable and the operation of a more open economic system has to be tempered by judicious public interventions to ensure that these vulnerabilities are gradually overcome. In other words, maintenance of the Eighth Plan growth performance is likely to be inadequate not only to reduce the level of unemployment but also to absorb the additions to the labour force. The main objective of the Ninth Five-Year Plan was to correct historical inequalities and increase the economic growth in the country. However, it needs to be managed so that we can derive the maximum advantage from world markets.
Chapter 2- Macro-economic Dimensions and Policy Framework 3. Major improvements were also made to people's lives. The Demand for Energy in the Soviet Union. Scientific Management, Socialist Discipline, and Soviet Power. At best, it took 6 - 8 years from invention to implementation, when it was already hopelessly outdated. Free and compulsory education for children, especially for the girl-child and other educationally backward groups, supported by an adequate mid-day meal programme in schools is the first step towards this end.
Output value of the primary industry increased at an annual growth rate of 4. The skill and geographical distribution of the emerging labour force reflect past trends in population growth and skill development, and cannot be changed significantly at this stage. In addition, investments in capital construction in 1956 totaled 14. The most important of these is in the area of social development especially in rural areas. It is expected that the steps that are being proposed will lead to an improvement in the sex ratio to about 943 by the end of the perspective period. These institutions for contractual long term savings can play a major role in increasing aggregate savings of the economy. Continued deficits at these levels will either mean continued high rate of interest, or a constant threat of over monetisation and consequent inflation.
In 1974, a state program for the development of the Non-Black Earth Region was adopted. During the Eighth Plan period the fall in birth rate has been steeper than that in the death rate; consequently annual growth rate is around 1. Policy finance and commercial finance were gradually separated. . Chapter 5- Implementation, Delivery Mechanisms and Institutional Development 6.
The meaning is very vast. The central governments principal role in this regard would be to raise the issues which appear to be of national interest and to provide a forum for arriving at a consensus. In the early stages of development planning, government was viewed as the principal actor in development exercising strict control over private investment, ensuring a dominant role for the public sector in all important industries. Poverty Alleviation The target was to reduce the incidence of poverty by half. The training of skilled workers and specialists of higher and secondary qualifications has improved. When was the five year plan introduced? As a result the annual exponential population growth has been over 2% in the last three decades.
It included, for the first time in Soviet planning experience, specific detailed targets for individual years in the plan. Chapter 1- Objectives, Strategy and Perspective of Development 2. Public intervention will be necessary to ensure not only that adequate work opportunities are created, but also that the labour force is able to access these opportunities. Alternatively, several negative results included a disproportionately high fixed asset ratio, rapid growth in consumption and fiscal over-supply. Steel output was reduced to between 32 and 35 million tons and later further reduced to 30 million tons. Past experience has shown that functions and services which are localised in nature are most efficiently implemented by local political entities and other local bodies. This process also needs to be continued in the Ninth Plan.
Primary education, primary health care, including the preventive and promotive, safe drinking water, nutrition and sanitation require heavy investment which has to be provided out of public funds. The shift in emphasis towards private initiative and reliance on the entrepreneurial spirit of the people essentially seeks to create the conditions for rapid and sustained growth. There can be no general solutions to these problems. Steps must be taken to restore the fiscal health of the government at all levels. The skill profile of the emerging work-force is such that a large majority will have to continue to seek work opportunities in this sector. Our policies must therefore create an environment which encourages this outcome. This creates a barrier to living everyday human life.
These are: a quality of life of the citizens; b generation of productive employment; and c regional balance. The production of military equipment at machine-building enterprises reached 60 to 80% of all their products. There is a need to move to a system of transparent subsidies directed towards specific target groups in a selective manner. The main thrust of the Ninth Plan is to achieve a growth rate of 6. The remaining controls at the Central Government level need to be reviewed for further liberalisation. Globalisation has meant an explosion of financial integration in world markets, with large volumes of capital moving freely across national boundaries. The factors responsible for this continued decline are as yet not clearly identified.