3 stages of development of political science. 5 Phases Of The Evolution Of Public Administration 2022-10-11
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Political science is a discipline that studies the systems, processes, and behavior of government and politics. It is a broad field that encompasses a range of subfields, including comparative politics, international relations, public policy, and political theory. Political science has a long and rich history, and its development can be divided into three main stages: the classical stage, the modern stage, and the contemporary stage.
The classical stage of political science began in ancient Greece and Rome and lasted until the 18th century. During this time, political science was primarily concerned with the study of political philosophy, including the ideas of philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, and Machiavelli. These philosophers sought to understand the nature of the state, the role of the citizen, and the proper way to govern. They also developed theories of justice, democracy, and political authority that continue to influence political science today.
The modern stage of political science began in the 19th century and lasted until the mid-20th century. During this time, political science became more empirical and scientific in nature. Scholars began to use data and systematic methods to study political phenomena, and they developed a range of theories and models to explain and predict political behavior. The modern stage also saw the emergence of new subfields, such as comparative politics, which focused on the study of different political systems, and international relations, which examined the relationships between states and other actors in the international system.
The contemporary stage of political science began in the mid-20th century and continues to the present day. During this time, political science has become even more interdisciplinary, drawing on fields such as economics, sociology, psychology, and anthropology to better understand political phenomena. The contemporary stage has also seen the development of new subfields, such as public policy, which focuses on the study of policy-making and policy analysis, and political psychology, which examines the psychological and cognitive factors that influence political behavior.
In conclusion, political science has undergone significant development over the course of its history. From its roots in classical political philosophy, it has evolved into a more empirical and interdisciplinary discipline that seeks to understand and explain the complexities of government and politics.
Political prerequisite of economic development; 2. Each position, obviously, has problems peculiar to it. The writings of several famous administrative theorists help to give a different dimension to public administration. There are many instances to show that in some developing countries while state-building has been solved, the problem of nation-building still remains to be solved. It is clear that Europeanization constitutes a formidable challenge to the assumptions of comparative politics—namely, to conceive of the European states as sovereign and independent units that are autonomous in terms of decision making. The separation of officials from ownership of the means of administration. In the EU, there is no government as such, as in the parliamentary or semipresidential systems of its member states that are organized according to the principle of the fusion of powers.
Bureaucracy: Definition, Theory, Development and Control
In Europe and elsewhere, the dividing line between internal domestic politics and external international politics has shifted significantly Robert Elgie, 1999. ADVERTISEMENTS: Political development is a more elusive concept than economic development. Besides above, in the field of international relations, the advanced or developed countries form the centre, and the developing countries constitute the periphery. Another important step is to know and determine the various levels or stages of political development. These crises are usually the developmental problems of all transitional societies. The political executives are quite aware of it and, in order to counteract it, in recent years alternative methods have been devised. Its inordinate love for law or to act according to law, to ignore the prime interests of common people, arrogance, mis-behaviour with people, zeal to protect personal interests at the cost of the interests of society, corruption at all levels, particularly at high levels, unholy alliance between officials and politicians, non-accountability etc.
5 Phases Of The Evolution Of Public Administration
Other organizations based mainly in Europe and North America, such as Freedom House, International Institute for Democracy, and the United Nations Development Program, have come up with criteria for assessing performance in political and civil rights, democracy, governance, and economic performance. Like Weber, Marx did not develop a well-knit theory of bureaucracy, but he was quite aware of its existence and importance in capitalist country. Sociological Institutionalism The Return of Political Culture The main mesolevel theory of comparative politics is sociological institutionalism. In fact, he could not rise above his parochial structural-functional approach, despite his high talk about dynamic equilibrium found in the systems. The former is dominated by machine-politics whereas the latter is actually dominated by a small bureaucratic elite. Andre Gundre Frank Comparative Government, 1969 in the context of Latin American countries raised the fallowing three issues: i Why is there uneven development in the world? Therefore the State-building can occur only when the Government creates adequate machinery to deal with the multi furious problems. The method of correlations has proved to be satisfactory when those cases are not only limited but also homogeneous e.
Political Science as Science: The Stages of Becoming
Rediscovering institutions: The organizational bases of politics. This has happened in turkey Egypt, Burma, Pakistan and a host of other countries. If a policy remains unimplemented the ministers have the right to call for explanation from the officials who were in the charge of implementation. The number of underdeveloped and developing countries was 77 known as group of 77 in about a decade ago, but increased to 120. Both Political Development and Modernization Affected by Common Factors:- Modernization and political development go together. He led the Russian revolution and had to confront problems of development in backward countries. ADVERTISEMENTS: However, Edward Shils did make another empirical analysis of transitional political systems and classified them in five categories: i Political democracy; ii Tutelary democracy; iii Modernising oligarchy; iv Totalitarian oligarchy; and v Traditional oligarchy.
NCERT Notes For Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Politics Of Planned Development
Legacies of power: Leadership change and former presidents in African politics. From there developed, after World War II, the comparative historical sociology of scholars such as Stein Rokkan and Harry Eckstein as well as the comparative political science of scholars such as Robert A. Renowned European empires such as Greece, Rome, Holy Roman, and Spain were basically administrative empires. Though this definition does not embrace all aspects, it conveys the real situation. Almond and Powell have discussed four problems related to political development. If there are ideological differences between the political executives and top administrators then clash of opinion is inevitable.
Criticisms Rational choice theory has not been spared criticism. One might argue that the analysis of Western welfare policies constitutes the starting point of comparative policy analysis, and even today, it represents its core business. First, historical institutionalism has paid less attention than rational choice institutionalism to the role of individual actors, and, in general, it has been more concerned with the possibility of agency in the historical evolution of a given institutional structure. This relates to the demand of welfare. We can further say that bureaucracy is a government of permanent officers. Surely, it has potential of empirical verification, though it also raises several other issues and questions.
Theories of Political Development (Explained With Diagram)
People can directly seek the help of mass media such as newspapers, periodicals, and electronic media. Because the aspect of intellectual practice of public administration peaked at this time. It adopts a holistic view of development. The basic unit of analysis of the rationalist theories is the actor. Political development has been variously explained as: 1. The rise in national and per capita income: The agricultural economy alone cannot increase the national wealth and per capita income as it has to support the idle members of the society also. After 1950 younger scholars increasingly took American PhDs and Canadian departments promoted behavioralism and quantification.
So the bureaucracy must take action. Second Loyalty and commitment. It redefines relationship between man and nature, and among human beings. The term committed bureaucracy, in fact, originated in the United States during the period of Great Depression when the American president wanted to accelerate the pace of development through bureaucracy and this he did by forcing the bureaucracy to implement the New Deal measures. Communist Model of Political Development : The communist model of political development is based largely on Marxist-Leninist ideology. This method is largely used in the United States, as is evident even from the comparative politics section of the book reviews in the American Political Science Association journal Perspectives on Politics, where there is an abundance of studies on single countries.
In the post—Cold War era, our knowledge of democratic, democratizing, and nondemocratic political systems has grown enormously. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. Criticism of the opposition parties by the government is not only tolerated but also welcomed. It has argued that those countries that have successfully instituted rule of law, established a culture of regular free and fair elections, and minimized corruption have been able to attract foreign private investors and thereby performed much better in development than those that have been unable to do so. Russia and later China became communist. He has also made up his classification on the basis of social classes, and, has not analytically related them with each other.